William Rae was born in Dumfries-shire in 1786, the son
of Matthew Rae of Park End Annandale, Dumfries shire. He
was educated at Loch Maben and Dumfries and afterwards
graduated M.D. at Edinburgh University. In 1804 he
entered the medical service of the East India Company and
in the following year was transferred as surgeon to the
Royal Navy. He served first in the Culloden under
Sir Edward Pellew. In 1807 he was twenty-one years old, when in the
took part in the destruction of the Dutch ships at
Gressic in Java. Subsequently when the squadron was
becalmed in the Bay of Bengal, he contrived an apparatus
for distilling water. (57)
He became a member of the Royal College of Surgeons in
When attached to the Leyden in 1812 - 13 he was
very successful in his treatment of the troops suffering
from yellow fever at Cartagena and Gibraltar, and
received the thanks of the commander-in-chief and the
medical board. (57)
He married his first wife Mary, daughter of Robert Bell
William Rae received a warrant of appointment as Surgeon
Superintendent to the Eliza convict ship on 19th June 1822. He kept
a Medical Journal from 19th June 1822 to 26 November
1822. 160 male prisoners arrived on the Eliza
under his care. In December he embarked in Sydney
on the Castle Forbes ship for Hobart. (possibly
continued to England on this vessel)
His next appointment as Surgeon Superintendent was to
Isabella in 1823. The
Cork in August 1823 and arrived in Port Jackson on 16
December 1823. William Rae kept a Medical Journal from
14th July 1823 to 24th December 1823. 195 men arrived as
prisoners under his care on this vessel. He was planning
to leave the colony at the earliest opportunity in
In 1824 he was appointed to the Bermuda station. Here at
St. George's Bermuda, he
married his second wife Margaret, in June 1825. Margaret
was the daughter of Robert Lee, Assistant Deputy
Commissary General at Bermuda. She was born at Prince
Edward Island, Canada in 1800.
He was appointed Surgeon Superintendent to the convict
Marquis of Huntley.
The Marquis of Huntley
departed Sheerness on 16 May 1826 and arrived in Port
Jackson 13 September 1826. 198 prisoners arrived under
his care on the Marquis of Huntley. He embarked on
the Fairfield for the return voyage (direct) in
His next appointment, the
convict ship, departed London on 11 June 1827 and arrived
Port Jackson on 27 September 1827. 180 prisoners arrived
under his care on the Prince Regent.
to England on the ship Elizabeth in November 1827.
Surgeon James McTernan returned on the same vessel
His last appointment to a convict ship was to the
Marquis of Hastings. The Marquis of Hastingsdeparted Portsmouth on 30 June 1828 and arrived in Port
Jackson on 12 October 1828. 178 prisoners arrived under
his care on this vessel.
He was forty-two years old at this last appointment to the
Marquis of Hastings, however his career was far from over. In
1829 he was appointed Surgeon to the Melville
In 1838 he was called on as a witness at the trial of several
soldiers who had been accused of murder of mariners at
Chatham. William Rae, then head surgeon of the Melville
Hospital performed the post mortem examination on one of the men who had been bludgeoned
to death. (100)
In 1839 he was extra licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians
He was on the List of Fellows of the Royal College of Surgeons
in 1844 (Chatham)
He was appointed Inspector of Hospitals and Fleets 17 January
William Rae can be found in the 1851 Census. He lives at East
Stonehouse, Devon. He is aged 63 and gives his
employment as Naval Officer, Inspector of Hospitals and
Fleets. His wife Margaret gives her place of birth as North America,
resides with him and is 38 years of age. His sister-in-law,
Elizabeth Gregory age 40, a widow lives with them and also
Jane Lee age 24 also a sister-in-law. They employ two
The entry from the
British Medical Directory of 1853 gives the following
information - William Rae, Royal Naval
Hospital, Plymouth - L.R.C.P. Lond; F.R.C.S. (Nom)1843;
M.R.C.S.E. 1811; Inspector of Hospitals and Fleets and
Inspector of Royal Naval Hospital Plymouth. Contributor of a
"Description of a Fracture Apparatus, with engraving"
published in The Lancet.
In 1855 he was present when the First Lord of the Admiralty
held his fourth levee of the season at the Admiralty,
William Rae was created C.B. in 1855 and Knighted in 1858 at St.
In the 1861 Census he resides with his wife at North Walk
Barnstaple. William is 74 and Margaret 54. Their sister-in-law
Mary, a spinster age 35 lives with them and they have two
servants. In the 1871 Census they reside at Hornby Lodge with
a sister-in-law and two servants.
He is listed in the Medical Register 1865. - Residence
Trafalgar Lawn, Barnstaple, Devonshire.
The Aberdeen Journal reported his death on 9th - Sir William
Rae K.C.B., Inspector-General of Hospitals and Fleets, and
Justice of the Peace for the counties of Dumfries-shire and
Devon, died this morning (the morning of the 8th) at his
residence, Hornby Lodge, Newton, Devon aged 87. His wife was
his sole heir.
Dame Margaret Rae died at Hornby Lodge on 11 June 1892 (London
WILLIAM REDFERN. The Story of His Life.
(By S. Elliott Napier.) .....
About the beginning of the year 1797 a
youth of nineteen donned the uniform of a surgeon first mate, and
entered' upon his duties as a member of the company of H'.M.'S.
Standard, stationed at the Nore. This was William Redfern,
destined in after life to play a very conspicuous part In the
early history of the colony of New South Wales. In May of the year
mentioned certain members of the Standard's crew complained of the
food supplied to them, and asked the young surgeonís mate to
support their protest. He agreed to do so , and advised the men to
"make a united appeal. Unfortunately for him and for the instead
of petitioning In the ' proper way, the crews mutinied. This was
In May,1797, and the event is known in history as the "Mutiny of
the Nore." The result of it is well known to everybody. The
leaders were overpowered and hanged out of hand; and the others
punished with varying degrees of severity. Redfern was charged
with complicity in the mutiny, found guilty and sentenced to
death! He had expressed his sympathy with the undoubted wrongs of
the sailors, and urged them to be united; the head and front of
his offending had that extent, no more. So the authorities did not
hang him. He was kept in prison for four years until sent to New South Wales
in the Minorca.
Thomas McCann and George Lewis were also tried for mutiny in 1797
and arrived in New South Wales on the Minorca
And thus it was that William Redfern, In
the closing years of the eighteenth century, came to the country
he was afterwards to serve so well. On his arrival in Sydney he
was sent to Norfolk Island, but his profession, his natural
abilities, and attractive personality saved him from personal
experience of the torments of that home of horror. He was
Instructed to act as assistant to the "civil" surgeon there, and
in 1802 he was appointed by Lieut-Col Foveaux, who was then in
charge of the station, to the post of surgeon to the
establishment. In that year, also, he was granted by Governor
King, on the recommendation of Foveaux, an absolute pardon. In
1808, under a local commission conferred upon him by Foveaux, he
was appointed to the post of assistant surgeon at Sydney, and from
that time almost until his death his life was centred here.
He married Miss Sarah Wills, the daughter of
Edward Spenser Wills of Geelong and Sydney in March 1811 and they
had two sons. Read more about William Redfern in the
Sydney Morning Herald 31 July 1926
David Reid was entered in the
Navy List of Medical Officers in 1814.
David Reid's first appointment as Surgeon Superintendent on a
convict ship was to the Baring which departed
England on 20 April 1815, called at Madeira and Rio and
arrived in Port Jackson on 17 September 1815 with male 298
Three years later he joined the
on her second voyage as a convict ship. He
kept a journal from 18 October 1818 to July 1820 on this voyage.
He was again employed as surgeon superintendent on the
arrived in Hobart and on 7th January 1822 at Port Jackson with
David Reid departed the
colony on the Tiger in March 1822, and returned again on
the Mariner with his family in 1823 and settled in
He was on the List of Surgeons of the Royal Navy unfit for service in
David Reid died in 1840.
The Colonist reported his death - At Inverary Park, on
the 6th instant, David Reid, Esq., J.P., Surgeon in the Royal
Navy, in the 65th year of his age. He had been one of the first
settlers, and was the oldest Magistrate in the southern country;
his death is a public lossóby it the colony is bereaved of an
upright and zealous Magistrate, and society of a truly honest man.
Thomas Reid was appointed Assistant-Surgeon on the
Canopus in 1810.
He was born in Ireland in 1791 and educated in County Tyrone
the Navy around 1811. He passed his examination at the Royal College of
Surgeons in England on 7 May 1813 and was admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons in
London in 1815. He was a prison reformer and at the instigation of
Elizabeth Fry he made voyages as surgeon-superintendent of the convict
ships Neptune, to Sydney in 1818, and
Morley, to Hobart Town
and Sydney in 1820 (with female prisoners).
He returned to England on the
Guilford in October 1820.
Other surgeons returning on the Guildford included
Robert Espie and
From the Dictionary of
National Biography ...........Thomas Reid revisited his
native country in 1822 and made an extended tour through the
central, northern, and southern parts of the island.
He was a sincerely
religious man who laboured earnestly to ameliorate the
condition of the prison population of the country. In early
life he drew attention to the conditions attending the
transportation of convicts male as well as female, to the
penal settlements in Australia. He showed how bad was the
discipline to which they were subjected on board ship during
their transference, and how atrocious were the arrangements
made for their reception when they arrived in New South Wales.
He strongly advocated that convicts should no longer remain
idle, but should be employed in a rational manner.
Thomas E. Ring was on the List of Surgeons who were fit for
service in 1841. He was appointed to the Wasp
employed as Surgeon Superintendent on the convict ship John Renwick
to Van Diemen's Land
in 1843. The Launceston Examiner
reported that the John
Renwick left London on 7th December with 161 male convicts
under Dr. Ring's care. He returned to England on the Agostina in
He returned again as Surgeon Superintendent on the
Angelinain August 1844. The
reported that the Angelina arrived in Hobart from Woolwich
on 24 August, having sailed on 25th April. She brought 167 female
convicts and 9 children. Three convicts died on the passage and 2
children also. This voyage also employed a Matron, Mrs. Steedman
who had formerly been in charge of female prisoners in the laundry
at Millbank prison. In advertising for employment on arrival, she
referred to Dr. Ring of Macquarie Street, Hobart Town.
October 1844 Dr. Ring departed Hobart for Sydney on the brig
Louisa and in January 1845 departed Sydney for London on the
He was on London College of Physicians
List of extra licentiates in 1844 (Medical
In 1852 the Morning Chronicle reported that he
was absent from duties on the Waterloo flag ship due to
The Maitland Mercury of 28 July 1852 included a report from
Times dated April 1852.........The Pestonjee Bomanjee, Surgeon
Superintendent Daniel Ritchie (1846) late of her majesty's ship
Rattler, left her moorings opposite the Royal Arsenal, with 100
convicts on board, and will take on board 150 additional at
Portsmouth, and 100 youths all males, from Parkhust Prison, Isle
of Wright, and then proceed with them to Van Diemen's Land where
they will obtain tickets of leave on their arrival.
The family returned to Melbourne from Liverpool on the vessel
in October 1857. The passengers on the Donald McKay included Simon
Ritchie, Jane Ritchie, Janet Ritchie and Daniel Ritchie R.N., (Hobart Town
Mercury 14 October 1857)
George Roberts was appointed to the position of Assistant
Surgeon on 24 May 1810.
He was appointed Assistant Surgeon to the Redwing in
He was promoted to the position of Surgeon in January 1824
(Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine)
He was employed as Surgeon Superintendent on the convict ships
departed the Downs 6th June 1830 and arrived at Port Jackson
21st October 1830.
The Gilmore which departed London 27 November 1831
and arrived in Van Diemen's Land 22 March 1832
departed Portsmouth 15 May 1833 and arrived at Port Jackson
19th September 1833.
The Waterloo to Hobart in 1835
from Dublin to Port Jackson in 1836.
He was Surgeon Superintendent on the immigrant ship
William Nicol in 1837. The Sydney Herald
reported in October 1837 that the William Nicol was the
first vessel chartered by the Government for the conveyance of
Highlanders to Port Jackson. They arrived from the Isle of
Skye under the superintendence of an old visitor Dr. Roberts
R.N. In the ship there were 311 persons including 73
female adults and 169 children. George
Roberts was on the List of Surgeons given advances or remunerated
for services as Surgeon Superintendents in 1838. He was paid
£20/1/9d for his services on the immigrant vessel
His next appointment was to the Lady Nugent
which departed Gravesend 23rd July 1838 and arrived on 27
November 1838 in Sydney. Two hundred and thirty eight Government emigrants came under
George Roberts care on the Lady Nugent.
The Sydney Herald reported in February 1840 that the
James Pattisonarrived in Sydney with 187 Government
Immigrants under the superintendence of Dr. Roberts. The James
Pattison had made the quickest passage ever known, having been
only eighty two days from the Lizard. The James Pattison had
always made excellent passages under Captain Cromarty and the
immigrants were very healthy. There were no deaths and two
children born on the passage.
Dr. Roberts returned to England on the Portland in
John Rodmell was entered in the
Navy List of Medical Officers in 1814
John Rodmell was appointed Surgeon Superintendent on the
convict ships Mary
in 1822 and the
1823. He died on
his third voyage as Surgeon Superintendent.
The Sydney Gazette
reported .......29th April 1826 - The Woodman, Capt. Daniel Leary, burthen 419 tons, from Sheerness,
6th December, Cape of Good Hope, 4th March with 146 male prisoners, 4
having died on the passage; and also the Surgeon Superintendent Mr.
Rodmell. In consequence of the death of Mr. Rodmell, Mr.
of H.M. Ship Helicon, undertook the charge at the Cape. The guard
consisted of Captain Wakefield, and Ensign Innes of the 30th and 2
sergeants and 7 rank and file of the 57th. - SG 24 May 1826
William Rogers was
appointed Assistant Surgeon on the Firefly Steam Vessel at Falmouth on 20 December 1833
He was employed as Surgeon Superintendent on the
Arab, which arrived from London on 30 December 1836
with 131 female convicts, and was Surgeon Superintendent on the
immigrant ship Layton. The
Layton departed from Bristol in
September 1837 and arrived in January 1838. Cabin Passengers
included Rev. Mr. Rogers and Mrs. Rogers. On the document of
arrival it was stated that there were 122 emigrants and 110
children. Two crew members died and seventy children on the
passage out. Measles had broken out soon after leaving the
He was on the List of Surgeons remunerated for services as
Surgeon Superintendents. He was paid £200 for his services on
In February 1838 he
took the place of Dr. Browning at the Quarantine station where the
passengers who arrived on the fever ship Minerva were being cared
for. He took up residence in Ward No. 1, a portion of which was
partitioned off for his use.
Rogers was on the List of Surgeons of the Royal Navy who were fit
for service in 1841.
He was employed as Surgeon Superintendent on
the convict ship Richard Webb in 1842
(to VDL). The Richard Webb departed Dublin 5th November with 199 male
prisoners and arrived in Hobart on 4th March 1842. Four women, six
children, five free settlers and six children of prisoners also
came on the Richard Webb. William Rogers kept a Medical Journal
from 15 October 1841 to 9th March 1842. He departed for London
again on the Fanny on 17 June 1842.
Archibald Ross was on on the List of Gentlemen who appeared
before the Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh who were
fully qualified to practise the arts of Anatomy, surgery and
Pharmacy and accordingly received Diplomas in August 1829
was employed as Surgeon Superintendent on the convict
ship Susan in
1834. Dr. Ross kept a Medical Journal from 24 March 1834 to 26
Archibald C. Ross, M.D., died at Funchal, Madeira a week after
his return to labour amongst the sufferers from cholera. He
was 47 years of age. (The Lancet 4 October 1856)
George Rowe was entered in the
Navy List of Medical Officers in 1814
George Rowe was employed as Surgeon Superintendent on the convict
ship New Grove to Van Diemen's Land in 1834. He
became dangerously ill and in consequence the vessel called at
Scilly where David Thomson was appointed Surgeon Superintendent.
Thomas Roylance married
Eleanor Goodwin at St. Luke's Middlesex on 18th February 1818 just
a few months before he set sail for NSW on the Hadlow (1).
He returned to England with seven other naval surgeons on the
vessel Shipley departing Sydney in April 1819.(2) In November 1820 he
departed England once again as surgeon of the Lord Sidmouth.
Thomas and Eleanor's son John Thomas Bell Roylance was born 29
Thomas Roylance was
court-martialled in 1825 for striking a purser. He
died at Jamaica in 1830
He was entered in the
Navy List of Medical Officers in 1814. (154)
He married Elizabeth Tilden on 16th February 1832 at
Northfleet Kent, England and a daughter Elizabeth was baptised in 1834; son
George Sydney in 1835; Mary Elizabeth in 1839, John James in 1841,
William Albert 1843, Lucy Letitia in 1848 all in Marylebone.
was employed as surgeon superintendent
on the following convict ships to Australia - click on the links to find
out more about each of these voyages -
He had few cases of serious illness on most of the voyages, however the
voyage of the China to Norfolk Island in 1846 proved more of a
challenge. They departed the Downs on 10th January and one hundred and
twenty six days later they experienced strong gales from the SW for several
days. This caused considerable sea sickness amongst the Guard and prisoners,
following which they suffered diarrhoea.
No fewer than from 70 to 80 cases came under his care in the course of the
passage and he attributed the use of oaten meal porridge which was given
daily for breakfast. They called at Teneriffe on 5th February for
refreshments and after the Cape of Good Hope experienced bad weather once
again when illness broke out. One of the prisoners Peter Gibson died at this
time although by the time they reached Norfolk Island the vessel was free of
all illness. (156)
George Shaw Rutherford was granted 2650 acres by Governor Darling on 24 June
land had been granted to John Cramer Owen in 1822, however John Owen
returned to England without taking up the grant.
John Owen's brother Henry Dixon
Owen was granted 1,100 acres adjoining this estate in 1822.
In the 1851 UK Census George Rutherford age 60 (M.D. Edinburgh,
Surgeon, General Practitioner), his wife Elizabeth age 48 and their children
George age 15, Mary age 12, John age 10 and William age 8 reside in
Devonshire St. Marylebone. They had two servants - a cook and a
housemaid. George gave his birthplace as Ireland.
George Shaw Rutherford is listed in the
Medical Register 1865. Residence 23 Devonshire Street,
Portland place, London. Qualifications Lic. royal college
Surgeons Edinburgh 1809 M.D. University Edinburgh 1818.
He died at 23 Devonshire Street Portland Place, London on
17th June 1868 aged 82. ..........
The Will of George Shaw Rutherford late
of 23 Devonshire Street, Portland Place, Co. Middlesex,
deceased who died 17 June 1868 was proved by the oath of
Elizabeth Rutherford, aforesaid widow.. Effects under £9000
George Shaw Rutherford was the brother of
James Rutherford also a surgeon superintendent. Select
here to read James Rutherford's correspondence written in 1837
regarding his brother George and the accusations of James Mudie
George Rutherford gave evidence
before a Select Committee which was appointed to inquire
into the best mode of giving efficiency to Secondary Punishments and to
report their Observations to the House. Select here to read the evidence he gave.
here to find the location of George Shaw Rutherford's land
in the Hunter Valley
England & Wales, National Probate Calendar (Index of Wills and
Administrations), 1858-1966 Original data: Principal Probate Registry.
Calendar of the Grants of Probate and Letters of Administration made in the
Probate Registries of the High Court of Justice in England. London, England...National
156.Ancestry.com. UK Royal Navy Medical Journals, 1817-1857
. Original data: Admiralty and predecessors: Office of the Director General
of the Medical Department of the Navy and predecessors: Medical Journals (ADM
101, 804 bundles and volumes). Records of Medical and Prisoner of War
Departments. Records of the Admiralty, Naval Forces, Royal Marines,
Coastguard, and related bodies. The National Archives. Kew, Richmond,