Free Settler or Felon?

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Bushranger Index

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ALLEN  Henry - Newcastle 1838 

ALLEN - William - Big River 1839

ANSCOMB  Richard -  Page's River 

ARMSTRONG - Garrett - Newcastle 1811

ATKINS - John - Newcastle and Paterson 1842

ATKINSON William - Dungog 1838

BAKER - William-  1844 Peel River

BEARD Henry -Maitland 1833

BELL Samuel Gammon Plains 1833 

BELL  William - Newcastle 1838

BOWEN - Edward  Upper Hunter & Liverpool Plains 1830

BOWERS  Joseph  Muswellbrook, Scone 1842

BOWSER - Timothy  Weary's Creek 1837 

BRADISH - Timothy  Liverpool Plains 1844

BRANIGAN  Edward  Liverpool Plains 1844

BROWNE - Morgan - Upper Hunter 1830

BRUIN - Patrick - Maitland- Wollombi - 1843

BURRELL - John & Benjamin - Paterson 1829

CASH Martin

CHAFFY - William - Newcastle 1826

CHITTY - Robert

CLARKE - George Liverpool Plains 1831

CLEARY - Lawrence --  Jacob's Mob 1825 Maitland / Hexham

CLYNCH - Patrick -  Jacob's Mob 1825 Maitland / Hexham

COLLINS, Michael - Invermein 1835

COLLINS -  Thomas  -  Patterson's Plains 1830

CUFFE -  Patrick  Greig's Creek 14 miles from Jerry's Plains 1838

DAVIDSON -  James  -  Maitland 1849

DAVIS - Edward - Jewboy Gang 1840

DAVIS -  James  Glendon 1839

DELANEY  - Daniel   Gammon Plains 1843

DESMOND Thomas - Newcastle/Hawkesbury

DONOHOE, -  John  'Bold Jack Donohoe' 1829

DONNELLY - Patrick - Upper Hunter 1830

DONOVAN - John - Upper Hunter 1830

DOOLAN  -  John  Weary's (Werris) Creek 1837

DUFFY - Hugh  -   Liverpool Plains 1830

EDWARDS  James ( Stroud) 1844

EDWARDS Thomas (Paterson 1841)

ELGAN Henry (Stroud) 1844

ELLIS - Henry   - Henry - (alias John Rose, alias Johnny the Native) Big River 1838 .

EVERETT - John - Jewboy gang 1840

FARROW - Thomas  1838/ 1840 Dungog/ Liverpool Plains

FEENEY, Patrick. Upper Hunter 1830

FITZGERALD, John Newcastle 1806

FLIP BOOK  George Boxall's History of the Australian Bushrangers

FORRESTER, Thomas (Long Tom Forrester)

GIBBONS -  James   Murrurundi 1839

GLANVILLE - Richard - Jewboy Gang 1840

GORE, James - (Paterson 1841)

GREEN John - Gammon Plains 1840

GREGORY -  Thomas   New England 1848

GRITTEN, Charles - Invermein 1835

HALL  Ben   - Son of Ben Hall of Murrurundi - 1860's

HAMILTON Andrew  - Gammon Plains 1833

HARRIS  - Benjamin  - Cassilis 1843

HAWKER -  Thomas   Paterson/Morpeth 1840

HICKEY  - Daniel Captured on the Bathurst  road

HICKS -  Richard  Miller's Forest 1845 

HITCHCOCK - Anthony - Castle Forbes - 1833

HOBSON - John  (Opossum Jack) 1839 Merton/ Cassilis

HOLMES -   Isaac  - Dungog 1838

HOWARD - James - Gammon Plains 1840

HUDSON  - Thomas  Newcastle 1827

HUGHES  - Henry  Stroud 1844



JEWBOY GANG  -  Hunter Valley 1841

JONES - David  Castle Forbes 1833

JONES  - George - Muswellbrook, Scone 1842

JONES - John - Upper Hunter - 1830

JONES - John (alias Gibber Jack) - Newcastle 1812

KEARNEY - Felix - Paterson 1830

KIEVERS - Thomas - Gammon Plains 1840

LITTLE - Robert - Invermein 1835

MARTIN James Gammon Plains 1840

MARTIN, William Invermein 1835

MASON - James - Gammon Plains 1840

MASON - John Liverpool Plains 1831




MARSHALL - John - Jewboy Gang 1840

MCCARTHY -  William Cassilis 1841

MCGUINNESS - Edward  Gammon Plains 1833

MCINTYRE -  John  Black Creek 1846

MCNAMARA  -  Francis 1842

MURTAGH -  Edward- Port Stephens 1843

OWEN -  Herbert  Glendon 1833

PEGG (Pigg)  - David Page's River 1831

PERRY - John  - Castle Forbes 1833

PHEENY (James) -  Scone 1841

POOLE -  John - Castle Forbes 1833

PRICE - Aaron-  Jacob's Mob 1825 Maitland / Hexham

PYZER -  Joseph Miller's Forest 1845

QUIGLEY -  John 1842 Maitland

RAWSON - Robert - Gammon Plains 1840

REDDISH - John Newcastle and Paterson 1842

REILLY  - James  Castle Forbes 1833

RICHARDSON -  John- Maitland 1833

RIDEOUT -  John  Black Creek 1846

RILEY - Patrick -  Jacob's Mob 1825 Maitland / Hexham

RINGWOOD - Samuel Stroud 1844

ROACH - John - Newcastle and Paterson 1842

ROACH -  John alias Hugh Duggan, alias Henry Howard - New England 1848

ROSS -  John Paterson/Morpeth 1840

ROWLEY  - William Dungog/ Liverpool Plains 1840

RYAN - James   Castle Forbes 1833

SAVAGE - Joseph - Paterson 1829

SHEA - John - Jew Boy Gang 1840

SMITH  John  -  Newcastle 1838

SMITH - William  -  Maitland 1844

SNEYLL -  Richard  Newcastle 1827

SPENCER - Thomas Big River 1838

SULLIVAN  John  Weary's Creek - 1837

SULLIVAN, William Invermein 1835

SUTCLIFFE - Francis   Gammon Plains 1844

TELFER (Telford), Alexander   Glendon 1839

TAYLOR Archibald   Glendon 1839

THOMPSON John Newcastle and Paterson 1842

THOMPSON Thomas   Page's River 1831

TOOLE -  John -  Greig's Creek 14 miles from Jerrys Plains 1838

TOOLE -  Stephen  Patterson's Plains 1830

VANE - John - Born at Jerry's Plains. Active in Bathurst 1860s

WALKER -  Joseph   Captured on the Bathurst  road

WALKER -  Thomas  Upper Hunter. Executed 1836 -

WESTBURY - Charles - Upper Hunter 1830

WESTWOOD -  William -  Australian Sketches - Jackey Jackey & Australian Dictionary of Biography Online

WHITEHEAD - Robert - Stroud 1844

WILSON - Buchanan - Stroud 1844

WILSON  - James  Gammon Plains 1844

WILSON - George

WILSON - George - Newcastle and Paterson 1842

WOODS  - Charles  Miller's Forest 1845

YOUNG James - Maitland 1843

YOUNG - Richard*  also known as 'Gentleman Dick'), Big River 1838



What made men take to the bush?

A writer to the Queenslander in 1866 explained it when he wrote of the bushrangers of thirty years previously:

'Bushranging and crime was the rule in New South Wales thirty years ago - the working hands prisoners and freedmen or ticket of leave holders. Your bushranger of the olden times was a much more dangerous character than his modern successor; working hard for his masters for bare food and scanty clothing, with no wages and 2oz or tea and 1lb of sugar per week given as an indulgence, he was frequently driven by hard usage and flogging to take to the bush; sometimes to work for low wages until again driven forth by being discovered, and always finding sympathy and shelter among the convict servants on stations. On the roads he was most desperate, for he had not the lenient laws we have now, and he knew well that if taken with arms in his hands he would be hanged; and they hanged them by scores in those days at the old gaol in George Street - three, four, seven at a time - Monday after Monday. Many a desperate encounter took place, many were shot sooner than yield; civilians were murdered, and the police often wounded and killed, for they were plucky fellows, and always stood their ground, emulating each other in tact and courage. The mounted police were chosen from the regiments serving in the colony with a major commandant in Sydney, and lieutenants of detachments in districts over small parties of three or four mounted men, and one not mounted, including a sergeant or corporal, stationed at remote towns. I was a constant habit of theirs to start singly disguised, and stick to the trail of two or even three bushrangers till they took them. Numerous anecdotes were told of the wonderful deeds of some of these men; and their names are familiar as household words among the old colonists to this day. The ordinary police were foot police and parties of them under a chief constable stationed wherever a Court of Petty Sessions was held, in a village or by the roadside as deemed necessary; and were under orders of the magistrates, and these men also often did good service. A favourite dodge of the police, I remember was to disguise themselves as horse drivers and take a team along the roads'>  

What might a bushranger have worn?

In 1830 when two elderly men on Sir John Jamison's estate were robbed, Jack Donohoe and his companion were supposed to have been the perpetrators. Later it was reported that one of them wore a blue jacket, light cord trousers, coloured waistcoat, half boots, white shirt, no neckerchief and a black hat. He was armed with a double barrelled pistol and three pairs of pistols fastened to a belt round his body under his jacket, and the other was dressed in a blue jacket, dark waistcoat and trousers, worn out half boots, white shirt, coloured neckerchief, and black hat In 1833 an incident took place at Castle Forbes, the estate of James Mudie. Several desperate assigned servants (convicts) revolted after years of being ill nourished, poorly treated and punished repeatedly. They threatened Mudie's son-in-law, robbed the homestead and then took to the bush to join one of their cronies who had already absconded. When they robbed the house, they took with them new sets of clothing for each, hoping it was said, to disguise themselves and make their escape. Their own clothing was poor. Worn out shoes and probably thin, ragged smocks and trousers. When a notice was placed in the newspaper soon afterwards, it was revealed what the five men had taken with them - John Poole wore white duck trousers; James Reilly wore a white shirt and duck trousers with a white jacket and straw hat; David Jones wore a white shirt, white trousers, duck frock and a straw hat; John Perry wore a white shirt, duck trousers, duck jacket and a straw hat, and another man, unidentified got away with a blue cloth jacket with yellow buttons and fustian trousers.    

Other clothing items that bushrangers may have worn

Fustian jackets and trousers (a mixture of linen and cotton twill) was used for coats and jackets for everyday men's wear because of its hardwearing durability. Colours could range from white and buff to brown and bright blue or red

Neck 'kerchiefs were often cotton and worn during the day. 

Nankeen trousers were made from a kind of pale yellowish cloth, originally made at Nanjing from a yellow variety of cotton, but subsequently manufactured from ordinary cotton which was then dyed

Moleskin trousers and Jackets - made from brushed heavyweight cotton

Duck Trousers and jackets - Duck was a kind of waterproof canvas material

Shirts - Checked and red shirts, Regatta shirts, striped cotton shirts, Crimean shirts (after 1856) were sometimes of grey wool and had a simple band instead of a collar. They were often worn outside the trousers Guernsey frocks - a kind of smock used as a coverall

Pea Jacket - A pea coat , or pilot jacket was an outer coat usually of navy coloured wool

Monkey jackets - A monkey jacket was a waist length jacket tapering at the back to a point. Often worn by sailors

Cabbage Tree Hats - broad brim hat woven from palm leaves - often made by convicts

Forage Caps - Small cloth caps worn by soldiers

Bushranger Terms

Absentee....A runaway prisoner, usually one who had gone missing from assigned service

Approver...A criminal who supplied evidence to prove the guilt of a fellow criminal in an effort to save their own life eg. Edward Doolan at the trial of bushrangers Steele, McGrath and Ryan.

Bail up...Bushranging term meaning to hold up and confine under threat of weapons. See the robbery of Mr Farquar at Clarencetown in 1845

Black tracker...An Aboriginal native employed by the police for his skill in tracking men and animals over great distances. Often used to capture escapees from Newcastle penal settlement

Bolter..An absconder, usually from a government gang To borrow...To 'borrow' was a euphemism for stealing. See SG 17 August 1832

Take to the bush..To Take to the bush was to abscond or run away to a life of crime in the bush

Banditti..Another term for bushrangers. eg. Hunter River Banditti in 1832

Crusher...Slang name for police trooper

Duffer...Stealer of stock eg horses, cattle or sheep

Frying pan...A description of the brand on stolen cattle or hides after duffers have obscured the owner's brand

Gully raker...A person who illegally acquired cattle that had strayed into gullies and isolated places See Sydney Gazette 17 October 1840

Knight of the Road...Another name for a bushranger

Mob...An alternative name for a gang of bushrangers eg. Jacob's mob from the Hunter Valley Out....

To go 'out' was to be at large in the bush. See the Sydney Gazette 7th February 1835

Plant...A place selected by bushrangers as a good place to hide

Spring the Plant...To spring the plant was to discover a bushranger's plant or recover articles from the plant

Robbery under Arms...A terms used in court to describe charges against bushrangers

Shake...To steal or rob a person

Swag...Loot, plunder

Trap...Prison slang for a law enforcement officer particularly Mounted Policemen  



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