|The Brothers was built at Whitby in 1815. Prisoners were transported on the Brothers to New South Wales in 1824 and 1827. On this voyage in 1824 the women came from the following counties in England and Wales - Middlesex, Lancaster, Lincoln, Oxford, Warwick, London, Chester, Hertford, Essex, Gloucester, Worcester, Surry, Somerset, Norfolk, Devon, Leicester, Salop, Cumberland Anglesey and Cardigan.
For some years Elizabeth Fry had been concerned about the plight of female convicts under sentence of transportation.............
The women were almost invariably more or less ironed, sometimes cruelly so.
There is in existence a list of the names of women, received in irons, on board the Brothers, which sailed in 1823; it was taken down at the time, by direction of Mrs. Fry, in order that a represention might be made upon the subject to the Government. By this list, it appears that twelve arrived on board handcuffed. Eleven women from Lancaster were sent to the ship "iron-hooped round their legs and arms, and chained to each other. The complaints of these women were very mournful, they were not allowed to get up or down from the coach without the whole being dragged together; some of them had children to carry, they received no help, or alleviation to their suffering." A woman from Cardigan travelled with a hoop of iron round her ancle, until she arrived at Newgate, where the sub-matron insisted on having it taken off. In driving the rivet towards her leg to do so, it gave her so much pain, that she fainted under the operation. She stated, that during a lengthened imprisonment, she wore an iron-hoop round her waist; from that a chain connected with another hoop round her leg above the knee, from which a second chain was fastened to a third hoop round her ancle: in the hoop that went round her waist were, she said, two bolts or fastenings in which her hands were confined when she went to bed at night, which bed was only of straw. Such were a few of the scenes, into which Mrs. Fry was introduced, in this department of her important labours for the good of the suffering and the sinful of her own sex.
The prisoner who came from Cardigan was Elinor James. She was tried at the Great Sessions, Cardigan on 2nd September 1822 and sentenced to seven years transportation. According to this newspaper article uploaded to the Ceredigion County Council site she had the distinction of being the only female transportee from Cardigan......She was charged with feloniously stealing from the house of a certain Anne Thomas in Tremain. She allegedly removed one gown, one silk shawl and one handkerchief, the property of one Mary Phillips, and one cloak, petticoat, silk handkerchief and flannel apron, the property of Anne Thomas. Her companion, David George, aged 59 was charged with removing a similar array of clothing from the same house. David George was apprehended in early May, whilst Eleanor James was not brought in and charged until July. From records, this was not her first offence, and the gaol report describes her as a thief from infancy. She was transported to Tasmania and was kept for a brief period in a female factory before being assigned to a master.
The women from Lancaster included Mary Ann the wife of James Anderson, Mary McCawley, Ann Mullen, Mary Partridge the younger and Ellen Partridge. (Ellen Partridge later married William Simpson who was innkeeper at the Plough Inn, Jerry's Plains)
Fifty-six free passengers came on the Brothers including Anne Bennett and her infant child. Anne Bennett later petitioned on behalf of herself and convict husband stating that she had arrived a stranger in the colony having overcome a thousand difficulties in order to join him and at length had been reduced to abject poverty craving alms from the charitable and humane institutions.
Other free passengers included
1) Margaret Hush, wife of Ralph Hush who arrived on the Neptune in 1820 and their four children Ralph, Philip, Joseph and Sarah;
2) Frederick and Ann Butler the children of Mrs. Butler.
3) Esther Bryant and her son George Knowles Bryant;
4) Ann Easterbrook and sons Isaac and Abraham;
5) Catherine and Elizabeth Fieldhouse;
6) Judith MacAnilly & son John;
7) Henry Thomas;
8). Richard Davis
9). Margaret Emmerson
10). Mary Connolly and son John
11). Elizabeth Fulloon and her children Maria, Elizabeth Matilda, John and Charles arrived as free passengers. Her husband may have died on the passage out.
The Brothers was at Deal on the 1st December. She departed the Downs on 6 December 1823.
SURGEON JAMES HALL
James Hall was assaulted by female prisoners in December 1823 when the Brothers, had been at sea for only a week. Later in a series of court actions between the officers of the ship, James Hall's lack of tact was seen as the primary cause of the trouble. Select here to read some of the Evidence presented at the enquiry, by the ship's crew, passengers and convicts.
James Hall kept a Medical Journal from 16 October 1823 to 15 May 1824. He found that among the female convicts the principal complaints originated from 'dyspepsia, functional disturbance of the uterine system and obstipatio'. He found it difficult to treat the women without a few remedies applicable to the uterine system as well purgatives and was greatly in favour of preventing diseases by encouraging cleanliness and exercise with a 'uniform system of kind but strict management', than of later having to cure them. (3)
In the early part of the voyage many women suffered sea sickness. There were also cases of ophthalmia and catarrh and at least two births. Free passenger Mrs. Butler gave birth to a child on 17 February and Bridget Hanning was 44 years old when she gave birth to her eleventh child on the 17th March. Two days later the baby was found dead in its mother's arms. Other deaths that occurred included Mary Partridge who was 21 years old and pined for her mother she had left behind; and the six year old son of Mrs. Butler. Mr Butler later died as well. Altogether the surgeon's journal recorded five deaths, none of whom were convicts.
James Hall was surgeon on the Agamemnon in 1820, Brothers in 1824, Mary Anne in 1822 and Georgiana to Tasmania in 1833.
The Australian Dictionary of Biography Online states - James Hall, naval surgeon, was born on 17 September 1784 at New Inn Yard, Shoreditch, London, son of Joseph Hall and his wife, Mary Shaw. James was a second surgeon at the naval hospital at Corfu, Greece, in 1807. At the risk of his life he warned a British sloop that the French had occupied Corfu, thus saving her from seizure, and gave the commander of H.M.S. Weazle information which enabled him to sink three privateers and capture a gunboat with eight transports under convoy, loaded with French troops bound for Corfu. He was appointed an assistant surgeon in the navy in August 1809 and surgeon in September 1817.
To read an in depth account of James Hall's life and career select King-Hall Connections.
A simple tribute of affectionate remembrance, from a convict who was transported in 1823, on board the Brothers, should be recorded, in referring to that ship: a calabash from the garden of Hester . The present referred to has reached Mrs. Fry's family, since she was taken from them; it was accompanied by a message of gratitude. The donor recalled herself to their memory as having been school-mistress in Newgate, and that when she left the prison, Mrs. Fry had given her a pound of lump sugar, and half a pound of tea. Hester has been married twenty years, in New South Wales, is very comfortably established; and wished her former benefactress to be informed, that she has "plenty of pigs and fowls, buys her tea by the chest; and that the patchwork quilt which now covers her bed, was made of the pieces given her by the ladies when she embarked." (4)
Perhaps the quilt adorning the bed of the above woman was similar to the Rajah quilt produced in 1841 and now held at the National Gallery of Australia:
The Brothers arrived in Hobart on Thursday 15th April where fifty women were landed on Wednesday 21st April.
The remaining thirty nine women were sent to New South Wales
Below is a list of the women landed in NSW with comments from James Hall regarding their conduct on the voyage out:
Mary Ann Palmer - extremely good
Sarah Day - extremely good
Mary Ann Underhill - extremely good
Elizabeth Benson - extremely good. (
Elizabeth Benson later married John Mayo, innkeeper of the Hunter River Hotel at Maitland)
Mary Ann Strange - very good
Fanny Williams - very good
Sarah Bailey - very good
Mary Thorn - very good
Mary Ann Helps - very good
Amelia Wilson - very good
Catherine Keefe - very good
Catherine Riley - very good
Esther Clarke - very good
Sophia Frayer - very good
Ann Reason - very good
Kitty Sheen - very good
Ann Mullen - a bold and daring woman but loyal and obedient. Has suffered much injury from the mutineers
Charlotte Ann Alvey - orderly
Sarah Tweltridge - loose
Mary Williams - turbulent and quarrelsome
Martha Shaw - turbulent
Catherine Biggs - extremely quiet
Ann Norris - extremely quiet
Hannah Hutchings - loose but quiet
Eleanor Leach - orderly
Jane Wheatley - a woman of great talents but given to inebriety
Bridget Hanning - disorderly
Sarah Robinson - very well behaved
Ann Wilson alias Ann Maria Askew - insolent and very refractory
Elizabeth Cannon - deranged at times
Margaret Boyle - orderly
Sarah Williams alias Elizabeth Elliott - disorderly
Mary Smith - made her escape from the prison and slept with the first mate; very disobedient and guilty of mutiny.
Surgeon James Hall accused the following women of mutiny:
Lydian Gardner - loose but quiet
Ellen Meadows - loose but quiet
Elizabeth Wreay/Wray - disorderly and vicious
Catherine McManus - very loose and refractory
Ann Russell - an abandoned character.
Despite the above comments many of the women on board Brothers seem to have been mostly orderly and well conducted. The Surgeon afterwards wrote:
"Port Jackson, May, 1824. "How steady is the pace of those who have forsaken the evil of their ways; such are the females (at least a great number) who have been under moral discipline in Newgate. I have every reason to be pleased with their exemplary conduct; they submit to restraint, and conform themselves to discipline. "The force of example and the value of moral discipline have been admirably shown in this voyage; and when I shall lay before you the proofs, you will become more sensible, perhaps, than you have been of the value of the labours in which you and your friends are employed, and may urge others to join in the same good work." A Missionary, who sailed in the same vessel, confirmed this pleasing statement. "For your comfort and encouragement, I beg leave to report to you the good conduct and decent behaviour of the Newgate women. That the kind instructions you have given them were not in vain, was very evident from their conduct during the voyage." (4)
The Brothers arrived in Port Jackson on Friday 7th May 1824.
Elizabeth Fulloon was employed as Superintendent of the Female Factory at Parramatta on arrival.
Details of Mrs. Falloon's appointment......
Under Secretary Horton to Sir Thomas Brisbane.
Sir, Downing Street,
5th Novr., 1823.
I am directed by Lord Bathurst to acquaint you that he has appointed Mrs. Fulloon to to be Superintendent of the Female Factory at Parramatta with a Salary of £100 per annum, and, as her husband will be required to superintend a different branch of the Factory, he will receive a Salary of £50 per annum both to be paid from the Police Fund; Lord Bathurst is also of opinion that they should occupy Apartments in the Factory, and should receive two single Rations and Coals. If however Mr. and Mrs. Fulloon should conduct themselves perfectly to your satisfaction, his Lordship would be disposed to approve of a further allowance of two single Rations which must however depend upon your experience of their good behaviour, and you will be at liberty to discontinue that indulgence if you should see any cause for so doing. I have, etc, R. WlLMOT HORTON. (HRA, Series 1, Vol. XI)
Some of the women of Brothers were sent to the factory where they were employed at spinning. Their names may be found in the 1825 muster.
Rev. Samuel Leigh visited the factory in 1824.......
On the 20th of August, the Eev. Daniel Tyerman and George Bennett, Esq., deputies from the London Missionary Society, arrived in Sydney. Every thing appeared at this season to disadvantage. "The neighbouring country," they said, "is good in soil, and diversified in feature; but its aspect is dreary from long drought, which has exhausted the springs, withered the herbage, and reduced the cattle to living skeletons. We have made various calls on, or received visits from, naval, military, and civil officers, to whom we had introductions, as well as to the Wesleyan missionaries, who are here carrying on a blessed work amongst all classes of colonists." Those gentlemen visited the barracks, hospitals, and schools in Sydney, and inquired particularly into the state of religion and morality in the city. They paid a visit to Paramatta, where they were hospitably entertained at the residence of the Eev. Samuel Marsden. They inspected the factory for the reception of female convicts, and found them employed in dressing flax, sorting wool, and spinning both, to be woven by the male convicts at their quarters. One hundred and eight females were thus occupied, and as many more were expected in a few days. A respectable matron superintended the establishment. The institution for the education of the orphan children of convicts, which is admirably conducted, excited their deepest sympathy. Upwards of one hundred young persons were in course of preparation for situations as servants and apprentices. (5)
The convict indents for the Brothers included name, date and place of conviction and term of sentence. A few women have other details recorded such as native place and physical description. The indents do not reveal where or to whom the women were assigned.
NOTES AND LINKS
1). Select HERE to find out more about Hunter Valley convicts and passengers of the Brothers.
2). Brothers was one of two convict ships that brought female prisoners to New South Wales in 1824, the other one being Almorah. A total of 147 female prisoners arrived in the colony in 1824.
3). Articles provided by the Ladies Prison Society....
........Sketch of the origin and results of ladies' prison associations: with hints ... By Elizabeth Gurney Fry
4). James Hall was recommended by Elizabeth Fry. Report of the Committee of the Society for the Improvement of Prison Discipline.....
The Fourth Annual Report of the Committee of the "British Society for the reformation of Female Prisoners." ..........
In the introductory part of this Report, the Committee state, that although they have but few new or interesting facts to bring forward, yet the cause still prospers, notwithstanding the obstacles and difficulties which continue to present, and retard complete success. As, however, they have the co-operation of the ministers of the Crown, by continued kind attention to their requests, and patronage and encouragement from magistrates in London and other places, there is, we think, ample ground for persevering efforts. By different documents it appears, that a decided benefit has resulted to those convicts generally, who had been under the care of the committees in Newgate and other prisons; their conduct evincing evident marks of the labour which had been bestowed. We extract the following particulars from the Report.
"The following lines are extracted from a letter dated Port Jackson, May, 1824—from the Surgeon Superintendent of the Ship 'Brothers,' of whose departure in the latter end of the year 1823 mention was made in the Report of last year. 'The force of example and the value of moral discipline have been admirably shown in this voyage, and when I shall lay before you the proofs, you will become more sensible perhaps than you have been, of the value of the labours in which you and your friends are employed, and may urge others to join in the good work.
The same gentleman, on his return to England, writes thus to your Committee: 'During the voyage of the Female Convict Ship which left England in the year 1823, the conduct of the women from Newgate was so extremely good, (with the exception of a few,) and so far superior -to that of the convicts from prisons not visited by ladies, as not only to excite the notice of the respectable families who were passengers in the ship, one of whom was a Missionary, but to impose also a duty on the Officer who had charge of the convicts, that of reporting to government 'the good conduct of the Newgate prisoners.' From among several of these women, all deserving equal notice, I must mention one young woman, *M. A. P. (* probably Mary Ann Palmer) , whose example and whose industry in every moral and religious duty, were so eminently serviceable to her fellow prisoners, that the Missionary took her into his service, and would have gladly taken her with his family to New Zealand, if it had been possible. She had been nearly ten months under his observation, and had been several times exposed to causes sufficiently powerful to have drawn aside many a helpless young female. Observation has led to the discovery that full three fourths of the Female Convicts who are transported have not had a religious education, and that nearly one third are totally ignorant, and unable to read the Bible."
The following extract is from a letter written by the surgeon-superintendent James Hall after his return from Port Jackson:
"It is not to be supposed that all, who have been subjected to prison discipline, should speedily change vicious habits for virtuous ones; yet the religious instruction and useful employments in which the convicts have been engaged, are known instantly they arrive on board the convict ship. These women exhibit a greater degree of cleanliness, and propriety of manners, than those who have come from prisons, where either no committee or association of ladies exists, or where a committee docs exist, but the convicts had been only a short time under its influence. "Numerous cases of reformation have been witnessed by the medical officers of government; and many families of respectability, at New South Wales and Van Dieman's Land, have experienced the good effects of that system of religions instruction which is so zealously pursued by the Committee of Ladies at Newgate."
5). There was a mutiny on the voyage and subsequent charges laid by James Hall against John Meach after arrival. The following people gave Evidence at the Enquiry:
James Hall, Surgeon
Edward Rundle, Boatswain
Matthew Gale, Chief Officer
Charles Motley, Master
Lydia Gardner, convict
Ellen Meadows, convict
Ellen Rae (Wray), convict
Bridget Hakman, convict
Catherine McManus, convict
Mary Riley, free woman
Thomas Robin, able seaman
Henry Blackstone Fell, 3rd Officer
Richard Davis, passenger
Margaret Emmerson, free woman
Mary Connolly, free woman
John Connolly, son of Mary Connolly
The Enquiry found no assault established by evidence for either the Charges of Mutiny or Conspiracy or Assault. The matter was dismissed however the evidence makes interesting reading. Some of the testimonies from the Historical Records of Australia are reproduced below:
6). The Information of James Hall, Esquire.
" I am Surgeon Superintendent of the female Convict Ship Brothers; we sailed from England on the 5th of December and arrived at Hobart Town on the 15th of April ; on the Evening of the 13th of December, Ann Mullin, Convict, Informed me that the Women were going to beat me. She whispered this to me as the Prisoners were passing down to the Prison ; about two hours after that Ann Wilson, Convict, Came to my Cabin, greatly agitated, and told me there was a Plot laid and that the women were going to Murder me. Immediately after this, it was between 7 and 8 o'clock in the Eveng., I went down to the Prison Gate ; the Ship was at Sea at this time, somewhere in the Neighbourhood of Madeira. On Entering the Prison, I found it in darkness and great Uproar prevailing; several voices exclaiming that Russel had put out the Light, others saying, ' for God's sake, Mr. Hall, don't go forward for they will Murder you.'
I immediately Called for Lights to be brought, some were brought, but instantly put out again by the Women in the Prison ; but, by Aid of the Lights before they were put out, I was enabled to proceed to half the length of the Prison in Search of Russel, the woman who was said to have put out the Light. I found her Seated, having on the Dress of a Woman of another County. I desired her immediately to go on deck ; a Convict named 'Ray' was standing near her; Russel refused to Obey my orders. I then went on deck to procure the Assistance of the first mate. Mr. Meach.
I returned to the Prison with him, and laying hold of Russel's Arm to force her from the Seat, Mr. Meach had laid hold of her other arm, and advised her to go on deck. I failed in my Endeavours to force her out of the Prison. I desired Mr. Meach to take Charge of her, whilst I went on deck to procure more Assistance, the Prison being Still in darkness. Immediately on turning round to quit Russel, a Scream was set up and I heard a Rushing behind me. and Some one Cried out 'give it the B r.'
I received a blow on the back of my Neck which made me reel forward and fall; I then received Several Blows and Some Kicks; having recovered myself. I got out of the Prison Gate close to which I had fallen, Mr. Meach being still in the Prison. Captn. Motley, the Master of the Ship, and Mr. Gale, the second Mate, and Some of the Seamen had already arrived at the Prison Gate : we seized the Arm of a woman, and endeavoured to pull her out of the Gate. She exclaimed to the Convicts within ' Hawl away B rs, if you hawl my Arm off.' She succeeded in getting clear of us.
Lights being now brought, we entered the Prison, and received Information that Six Women had Created the Disturbance; their Names were Anne Russel, Catherine McManus, Ellen Meadows, Lydia Gardner, Catherine Ryan and Elizabeth Rae ; these Women were taken out of the Prison and Secured ; these Women have since Confessed that they were Concerned in this affray, and that it had been proposed to them by Mr. Meach on the Afternoon of the same day to put out the Prison light in the Evening, When I went down to Prayers, to give me a good Beating and Jump my b dy Guts out ; and he further told them, no doubt he would be the first person I should Call down to Assist me, but he would Assist them, and told them he would give them a Bottle of Rum. I am also able to prove that the said Mr. Meach did assist in rescuing one of the Convicts from me and Captain Motley, and that he has himself Confessed he was engaged in the Mutiny; that he had false keys, by which he had Caused the Gate to be opened, and had taken a Prisoner to his Cabin for the purpose of Prostitution ; and that he gave Permission to three of the Crew to go to the Women, who were Confined in the Coal Hole in the Middle of the Night, and that he frequently expressed his Determination to throw me overboard during the first Gale of wind or blow my Brains out. I am also able to prove that he struck me on the back of the Neck during the Mutiny in the Prison. I can also prove that Mr. Meach was seen preparing his Pistols, on or about the time he said he would blow my Brains out, and therefore pray that Justice may be done. " James Hall, R.N., Surgeon Supt." Sworn Before me at Hobart Town, this 17th April, 1824. (. (HRA, Series 1, Vol. XI)
7). Evidence of Edward Rundle......
Police Office, 27 May, 1824.
Edward Rundle, now Second Mate on board the Ship Cumberland "I being Sworn, deposeth, that, on the Evening when the Disturbance took place amongst the Women on board, he was on his Duty, and heard Mr. Meach's voice in the Prison and heard Sarah Twithridge, one of the female Convicts, say to Mr. Meach that it was All his fault, and heard a Blow Struck and Sarah Twithridge Scream out ; that he then saw a Light brought into the Prison from the fore part of the Ship and the Light was immediately put out. Saith that the same Evening Mr. Meach Came to him on the Quarter Deck, after Deponent had Served out the Provisions, and told Depon't that Mr. Hall had Cut off Catharine Ryan's Hair and said it was a d d rascally Shame. Saith that, about 5 or 6 o'clock that Evening. Mr. Meach said that there would be a disturbance in the Prison amongst the Women ; that Deponent then went forward and heard one of the Women "We have five or Six," but this was spoken in an inquiry into Jocular Manner and Deponent did not know what it meant. After Disturbance was over and the Women quiet, Mr. Meach asked him if he had been securing the Women or not, that against Deponent replied "No," that Mr. Gale had, and said it was a d— - — d Shame to Confine any Women in that manner. Saith that on reference to what had taken place in the prison, Mr. Meach said that he had hold of Cath'ne McManus's Arm and had dragged her from Captn. Motley's arms, and Meach said that Mr. Gale had tried to stop her, when Meach said to Mr. Gale " let her go." and that Mr. Gale said, what had he Come down there for ; that Mr. Meach after this Conversation went further forward, and Mr. Meach said that one of the Girls had got him by the arm and Mr. Meach said it was him and the woman let him go; that Anne Wilson then brought a light from the Hospital, and Mr. Meach said to Cath'ne McManus " do you see that," and immediately Cath'ne McManus knocked the Light out of Anne Wilson's Hand, and Called her names : that Mr. Meach said to Deponent. " Do you suppose that I went down to Quell the Mutiny ; No, I told them I was only Come down to bustle amongst them and not to hurt them " ; that Mr. Meach then said, " I have given the old B r a Pett on the neck," meaning, as Deponent Supposed, Mr. Hall, and repeated the words " Old B r," and that he would feel it in the Morning. Saith that he, Deponent, Came on deck at 12 o'clock the same Night, and Mr. Meach Came to him and Said that Mr. Fell. Thos. Robinson and Charles Ward were down in the Hold with the Women, and that Mr. Gale was a d d Rascal and could not be trusted; that Deponent reported this to Mr. Gale, and about 2 o'clock in the Morning Deponent Saith he saw the three Men Come out of the Hold ; the same three men that he had been told were in the Hold ; that he spoke to them and is Certain that they were the Same. Saith that he heard Mr. Meach, in Conversation with Mrs. Hares, say that he would Shoot Mr. Hall and would Call him out as a Gentleman when he Came to Port Jackson ; and further heard Mr. Meach say that if it Came on a dark Night and a Gale of Wind that he would throw the old B r (meaning Mr. Hall) overboard. Edward Rundle. Sworn at the Police Office, Sydney, the 27 of May, 1824, Before :— D. Wentworth, Supt. of Police. J. Bowman, J.P. J. T. Campbell, J.P.
8). Matthew Gale, Chief Officer of the Ship Brothers, Cumberland ) being Sworn, deposeth, that on the Night the Disturbance took place amongst the Women on board, he heard the Cry of " Murder " and that they were murdering the Doctor; that Deponent went below to do his best to quell the Disturbance in the place where the Women were Confined; that Mr. Meach was down there before him ; that all was dark and there was a great Bustle and Disturbance amongst the Women, and the Cries of Murder in a woman's Voice still Continued, but doth not know who the woman was; that during the Bustle they got one Woman, named Cath'ne McManus, to the Prison Door ; that Captn. Motley had hold of her Arm on the outside, and Deponent, who was in the Inside, had also hold of her Arm to get her out of the Prison as she was one of the refractory Women ; that Mr. Meach was standing Close by Deponent and said to Deponent, " Gale, why don't you let the woman go " ; that Deponent said he would not, and asked Mr. Meach what he supposed he came down there for ; that Cath'ne McManus Called out, " Clap on behind and hawl away " ; that Mr. Meach then put his foot against the Prison Door to prevent the Woman from being hawled out, and the Woman pulling very strong behind Captn. Motley let go his hold of Cath'ne McManus; that Deponent was then in the Inside of the Prison and kept his hold of her until he was dragged by the Woman to the forepart of the Main Hatchway; that he then let go his hold of her. Saith that he heard a Blow struck, but the Woman offered no kind of Violence towards him. Saith that the Cry of Murder was in a female voice and not from Mr. Hall. Saith he thinks he was told that Night that the Cry of Murder was from a Woman named Russel. Matthew Gale. Sworn the 27th day of May. 1824,
9). Mr. Charles Motley, Master of the Ship Brothers, being Sworn, deposeth, that, on or about the 13th December last, there was a great deal of Noise and Disturbance amongst the Women in the Prison below ; that he went down and found Mr. Hall in the Act of dragging a woman through the Prison Gate; that the Lights were out; that Deponent Endeavoured to get the woman out, but she was rescued from him, but who rescued her or aided so to do, he doth not know ; that at this time Mr. Meach was in the Prison and Mr. Hall was on the Outside ; that Lights were brought and Deponent Called for more assistance and proceeded into the Prison; that Mr. Hall pointed out the Ringleaders and they were Secured; that Cath'ne McManus and Anne Russel, Lydia Gardner, Ellen Meadows, Cath'ne Ryan and another woman were Secured as the Ringleaders and they were put down into the Coal Hole by orders of Mr. Hall. Saith that Mr. Hall Complained that he had been very ill used in the Prison and had been kicked and knocked down ; thinks he saw a Scratch on Mr. Hall's face the next morning, but will not say positively so; that the Noise below Continued for about 15 Minutes ; Saith he was under no Alarm for his Own personal Safety, but what it might have led to, if they had got the Doctor under their feet, or what the women might have done to him, they might have killed him. Saith that the Gate of the Prison opened on the Outside, and no person inside Could push against it without forcing it open. Saith that the Reason ho superseded Mr. Meach in December was in Con- sequence of his having Struck a Woman Prisoner on hoard, and nor in reference to anything that took place on the Night of the Mutiny; that nothing had reached Deponent Suspicious of his Conduct on that Occasion. Saith that Mr. Meach always denied having any- thing to do with the women. Saith he heard Mr. Meach say he would Shoot Mr. Hall when he got to Sydney, and went to his Cabin and took out his Pistols and examined the Locks; saith he always had the highest opinion of him before. Saith that it was in the Month of January and not in December that he Superseded Mr. Meach. Saith that he was under no Apprehensions for the Safety of his Ship on the Voyage, as he had several respectable Young Men on hoard and his Crew were to be Confided in; Saith that he brought a Light with him into the Prison and it was there when he left the Prison. Saith that Mr. Meach the next Morning told Deponent at breakfast that he had been throttled by the Women, but no Marks of Violence appeared. Saith that the Light was in the Prison and Mr. Gale was there, and Mr. Gale must have Seen what occurred in the Prison by that Light. Saith he was there about ten or twelve Minutes and left the Light there. Saith that Mr. Meach never refused his Duty on board until he was superseded; believes, altho' Mr. Meach admitted he had taken Mary Smith out of the Prison by means of false Keys, that he denied having had any- thing to do with the Disturbance in the Prison. Saith Mr. Meach had Sailed with him before on a Voyage to Jamaica, and behaved himself pretty well as Chief Mate. Saith on Reference to his Log Book, it appears that Mr. Meach was Suspended on the 15th of January and the Disturbance took place on the 14th of December. Saith that he Called for Lights but they did not Come until after the Women had been Secured. Chas. Motley.
10). Lydia Gardner, who Came out a Convict in the Ship Brothers, being Sworn, deposeth, that, whilst the Ship was at Sea and the Morning after Catherine Ryan had her Hair Cut off, She was on deck with Catherine McManus, Ellen Meadows. Elizabeth Rae and Ann Russel, Standing near the Windlas. when Mr. Meach Came up to them and said that the Boatswain had not behaved like a Man in letting Cath'ne Ryan's Hair being Cut off and herself hand-cuffed, and that, if he Mr. Meach had had Connexions with her, he would have lost his Life sooner than her hair should have been Cut off; and that it would serve the Doctor right to give him a d d good Milling; and that he Mr. Meach would give them a Bottle of Rum if they would do it, after it was over; and that he would Come into the Prison in a great Hurry and appear to take Mr. Hall's part, but would take part with the women; that in the Evening, when they were all locked down, there was a light in the Prison which was inquiry into instantly put out by Ann Russel, one of the Convicts; that some of charge: the women then Called out for Mr. Hall to bring another Light; that Mr. Hall Came down without a light and asked what was the matter: that no Reply was made to him; that Mr. Hall Called several times for Anne Russel to Come out, but She would not go out; that Mr. Hall then Came into the Prison with a pair of Hand- cuffs with which he struck Anne Russel several times; that a Light was then brought from the Hospital which was immediately knocked out: that they then made a great Noise in the Prison and Mr. Hall Called for Assistance and- Mr. Meach Came down, followed by Captain Motley; that Mr. Meach Came into the Prison. Capt. Motley remained in the Hatchway; that Mr. Hall and Capt. Motley had hold of Cath'ne McManus's Arm, trying to pull her out, When Deponent and Anne Russel and Elizabeth Rae and Mr. Meach got hold of McManus. trying to keep her in; that Mr. Meach had hold of her left Arm and told the Women not to let her go out; that they Succeeded in getting her away, and afterwards Mr. Meach desired Cath'ne McManus to go to her bed and then Mr. Hall would not know who it was ; that deponent then sat down by her Berth to go to bed, and Mr. Hall took her out by force into the Hatchway ; did not see Mr. Gale in the Inside of the Prison during the time, nor did she hear Mr. Gale have any Conversation with Mr. Meach at this time; Saith that the same Evening, whilst on deck, Mr. Meach Came to deponent and said he would sooner lose his Life than Mr. Hall should be hurt, and said this in the Captain's Presence; and after the Captain was gone to his Cabin Mr. Meach told this Deponent and some other women not to say anything that he was in it; Saith that She did not see Mr. Meach strike Mr. Hall, and Saith that, on the following Sunday Morning, Mr. Meach again desired the women not to let Mr. Hall get any thing out of them, as it would be settled in a few days. And Saith that Deponent with four other women were on a Chain some days afterwards, having been Confined by order of Mr. Hall in Consequence of the Disturbance that had taken place, when Mr. Meach Came up and expressed his Sorrow that he Could not do any thing for them but hoped they would not bring his name into Question. Saith that Deponent and the other Women were Confined in a Dungeon for about Six Weeks by order of Mr. Hall, and for Nine days had no Bed to lie on, and three Weeks on bread and Water; that they were Chained together only one day for about two hours on the Deck. Saith that Mr. Meach said he had heard that, if Mr. Hall had a Pistol that Night, he would have blown some of their Brains out, but did not say whose Brains, and Mr. Meach said that two could play at that. Saith that some time after, Thos. Robinson, a Seaman on board, brought a Message from Mr Meach to desire that when the Women were brought to Court to deny All they had Said, and to say it was false; Saith that she cannot say that anything was done to Mr. Hall during the Disturbance. Saith that from Mr. Hall's hav'g struck Anne Russel with the Handcuffs the Blood followed, and the Marks are now to bo seen on her Arm. Saith that the Dungeon they were Confined in was about (I feet in length and (5 feet in breadth. Whilst the Weather was very hot, and they were nearly stifled for want of Air; that this was before they had Crossed the Line. Saith that for the first four days they were Closely Confined in the Dungeon, but after- wards some of them were allowed to be on deck for a few hours for four or five days. Saith that Sarah Twithridge, in Deponent's Presence, told Mr. Hall that She had heard Mr. Meach say he would give the Women a Bottle of Rum; and Saith that she saw Mr. Meach strike Sarah Twithridge two or three times in the Prison near her Birth for having told Mr. Hall this. her Lydia x Gardner.
11). Mr. Richd. Davis, being Sworn, Deposeth, that he came out a Passenger in the Ship Brothers, and saith that, whilst the 6 Women were in the Dungeon in a State of Confinement below at Night, they gave him some Statements to write in reference to the Disturbance that had taken place on board amongst the Women. That the Women gave their Statements in the Hospital, and he and them read them in the Cabin, and, when Eliz'h Rae had nearly finished her account, she was asked by Mr. Hall if she any thing more to say, and then she said that Mr. Meach had assisted her with others in rescuing Cath'e McManus from the Captain and Mr. Hall ; and this she said in the presence of this Depon't, Capt. Mottley and Mr. Hall. Saith that Mr. Hall, after the women had been confined in Dungeon for about 4 Days, said to Depon't that he wished him to interfere to prevail with the other women on board to make intercession for the 6 Women in the Dungeon to be released or their Situation made more comfortable. Saith that Mr. Hall suggested this as a kind hearted Man ; and saith that the Six Women remained in the Dungeon about a Week without their Bedding and on bread and Water, during which they were brought out every Day on Deck. That .Mr. Hall conducted himself more like a Father to the female Prisoners than otherwise; and Saith that this restraint upon the Women was necessarily put on in order to enforce due subordination and Submission on board. Saith he never saw the Women chained together, but heard that they were once. That Ellen Meadows had on the Iron Collar for part of two Days. Saith that the Morning after the Disturbance a Conversation took place with Depon't and Mr. Meach in reference to the Disturbance, and Mr. Meach said he had been nearly Throttled by one of the Women, but doth not know that such a Thing had happened. That Eliz'h Rae's Statement was made in writing, which had been written by Mr. Hall in her Presence and the words taken down from her Mouth ; is not certain how long the Women were in the Dungeon, it be 9, 10, 11, or 12 Days. Some remained a longer time, and others, who were released, got in again for Misconduct afterwards. Richd. Davis.
12). Objection to James Hall returning to the colony as a settler...... Sir Thomas Brisbane to Earl Bathurst.
Government House, Sydney, New South Wales,
24th June, 1824.
Understanding from Mr. Hall, late Surgeon Superintendent on board " The Brothers " Convict Ship, that it was his intention to proceed to England in order to make arrangements to return and Settle here with his Family, I trust I may be excused by Your Lordship in remarking that Dr. Hall's name was so completely identified with the case of the Magistrates, in the affair of Anne Rumsby, that it becomes unnecessary in me to recall it to Your Lordship's recollection. A further strenuous reason why he should not be allowed to settle here, and which I have to express my regret at its not having been before brought under His Majesty's Government, the fact of his having thought proper at that time to send challenge to the Colonial Secretary while acting in execution of his Official Duty. These considerations will, I trust, induce Your Lordship to retract any favors he may expect, to the condition of his settling in Van Dieman's Land, as, should he be permitted to revisit these Colonies, in order to fix himself in New South Wales, I am persuaded it would only revive many of those feuds I could anxiously desire to be forgotten. Accompanying, I have the honor to transmit a Copy of the proceedings taken lately before the Bench of Magistrates, by which Your Lordship will not fail to remark that, in this instance, he has again attempted to render his name conspicuous, and with equal success ; but, in the course of which, circumstances appear to have transpired, which do not reflect highly on his moral Character. I have, etc, Thos. Brisbane. (HRA, Series 1, Vol. XI)
13). National Archives - Reference: ADM 101/13/6 Description: Medical journal from 16 October 1823 to 15 May 1824 by James Hall, surgeon and superintendent, of the female convict ship Brothers, which sailed to New South Wales.
1. Convict Muster 1825 Source Class: HO 10; Piece: 19. (Ancestry)
2. Bateson, Charles & Library of Australian History (1983). The convict ships, 1787-1868 (Australian ed). Library of Australian History, Sydney : pp.344-345
3. Ancestry.com. UK, Royal Navy Medical Journals, 1817-1857 Original data: Admiralty and predecessors: Office of the Director General of the Medical Department of the Navy and predecessors: Medical Journals (ADM 101, 804 bundles and volumes). The National Archives. Kew, Richmond, Surrey.
4. Memoir of the life of Elizabeth Fry: with extracts from her Journal and Letters, Edited by two of her daughters, 1848, p. 429
5. Remarkable Incidents in the Life of the Rev. Samuel Leigh