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Convict Ship Canada 1815

Embarked 160 men
Voyage 243 days
Deaths 4
Surgeon's Journal - No
Previous vessel: Northampton arrived 18 June 1815
Next vessel: Francis and Eliza arrived 8 August 1815
Master John Grigg.
Surgeon Superintendent Robert Browne
Follow the Irish Convict Ship Trail
Convicts of the Canada identified in the Hunter Valley region


The Canada was built in North Shields and owned by Rieve and Green. She brought convicts to Australia in 1801, 1810, 1815, 1817 and 1819.

The Canada and the Francis and Eliza were the next convict ships to leave Ireland bound for New South Wales after the departure of the Archduke Charles in May 1812.



CONVICTS OF THE CANADA

Some of the prisoners on the Canada had been convicted of administering unlawful oaths......

Westmeath Assizes - Mullingar March 17 - James Fox was indicted, for that he on the 10th of November at Balaslock, in the county of Westmeath, did administer an unlawful and treasonable oath to one Patrick Martin, contrary to the statute. William Cunnyham, Patrick Geraghty, James Geraghty and Michael Fox were indicted for that they on the same day, and at the same place, did aid and assist said James Fox in administering an unlawful and treasonable oath. All were convicted on the testimony of Patrick Martin and sentenced to be transported. Loghlin White, Martin McDaniel James Burke and Christopher Malone, convicted on the informations of James Connell, who was afterwards murdered. They were convicted of administering unlawful oaths and sentenced to 7 years transportation. [1]

There were also common thieves -

Dublin City Quarter Sessions, Tuesday August 16 - John Moran and John Hugo, indicted for feloniously stealing a pair of pantaloons, the property of Anthony Ryan. The prosecutor swore he detected the prisoners selling the pantaloons in about ten minutes after they were stolen. There were four thieves together; two made their escape. The prisoners made no defence, and were found guilty. Recorder - This is the third or fourth time, Mr. Hugo, that you have been before the Court. To be transported for seven years. [2]



MILITARY GUARD

Passengers on the Canada included Lieut. Sutton of 1st Royals in command of a small detachment and Ensign Mayne of 46th regiment with a detachment to join the regiment.

The Headquarters of the 46th regiment commanded by Lieut-Col George James Molle arrived on the Windham and other detachments arrived on the Marquis of Wellington, Ocean, Lord Eldon, Fame, Recovery, Elizabeth, Larkins, Three Bees, General Hewitt, Guildford, Surry, Surry, Shipley, Sir William Bensley, Morley and Bencoolen.



SURGEON ROBERT BROWNE


Robert Browne was appointed assistant surgeon in the Royal Navy on 23 January 1809.

Date of seniority Royal Navy 7 August 1805

He was included in the Navy List of Medical Officers of 1814



FREE PASSENGERS

Provost Marshal Martin Timms and family all bound for Van Diemen's Land also came passengers on the Canada. See Australian Dictionary of Biography



DEPARTURE

The Canada and Francis and Eliza departed Cork on 5th December 1814 in convoy.



THE VOYAGE

The Francis and Eliza was captured by the American privateer Warrior, whose captain plundered the vessel before restoring it to the captain and crew. The Canada re-joined with the Francis and Eliza at Teneriffe and under convoy of the Ulysses frigate went with her to Senegal, next to Goree, and afterwards lo Sierra Leone.



CAPE OF GOOD HOPE

They sailed together for the Cape of Good Hope, where they arrived the 12th of May, and remained three weeks to refresh.



PORT JACKSON

The Canada left the Cape in company with the Frances and Eliza and arrived in Sydney on 5th August 1815. The voyage had taken 243 days and four or five convicts died on the passage out. On the voyage the Canada spoke the Hebe, bound for New South Wales and brought with her the news of the possibility of renewal of hostilities between England and France.

Governor Macquarie in correspondence to Earl Bathurst noted that the Convicts were a good deal afflicted with scurvy owing to the great length of the voyage but the troops were quite healthy. [3]



CONVICT ASSIGNMENT

After landing the male prisoners of the Canada were distributed to Windsor (64 men), Parramatta (25 men) and Liverpool (11 men) for assignment to settlers and government service.



DEPARTURE FROM PORT JACKSON

The Canada departed Port Jackson bound for Batavia on 25 October 1815.



NOTES AND LINKS

1). Political Prisoners

2). Convict John Bruce was later employed as an overseer at Newcastle. In 1820 he received a conditional pardon for his steady industry and good conduct in the construction of the windmill at Newcastle. This stone built windmill was built on the site where the obelisk now stands. The following image was engraved by Walter Preston who was a convict at Newcastle in the years 1814 - 1817 and shows a view of Newcastle as it might have appeared from the Windmill site.

034 - Plate 9 View of Hunter's River Newcastle New South Wales from Captain James Wallis - Historical Account (1821)

An historical account of the colony of New South Wales and its dependent settlements : in illustration of twelve views / engraved by W. Preston from drawings taken on the spot by Captain Wallis. (Cultural Collections, University of Newcastle)

4). James Steel, who was found guilty at Carrickfergus assizes of stealing a cow, was sentenced to 14 years transportation - Belfast Newsletter 17 August 1813

5). Six convict ships arrived in New South Wales in 1815 - Marquis of Wellington, Indefatigable, Northampton, Canada, Francis and Eliza and the Baring.

6). The Canada was built in North Shields and owned by Rieve and Green. She brought convicts to Australia in 1801, 1810, 1815, 1817 and 1819.

7). Conditional pardon granted to Patrick Geraghty ......Patrick Geraghty was born in Westmeath, Ireland, about 1792. With his brother James, he was convicted of robbery in 1814. Patrick Geraghty was a labourer at Appin, a farmer at Woonoona and a constable at Kiama. (State Library of NSW)

8). Return of Convicts of the Canada assigned between 1st January 1832 and 31st March 1832 (Sydney Gazette 14 June 1832).....
William Clitheroe - Paper maker assigned to Thomas Barker at the Steam Engine

9). Convicts of the Canada identified in the Hunter Valley region:

John Aldwell

John Bruce

Patrick Caslin

Theophilus Chamberlain

William Clitheroe

William Cooper

James Dobbin

Thomas Farrell

Thomas Fitzpatrick

Patrick Geoghegan

John Howlett

John Kelly

Hugh Maguire

John Martin

Owen McNally

Eneas McDonald/ McDonnell

John McEwin / McKeown

Michael McGrath

Peter McGue/ McGrough

John McKeag / McKeay

William Murphy

Charles (?) Riley

John Roan/ Rowan

Christopher Robinson

John Stubbs


REFERENCES

[1] Freeman's Journal 16 March 1814

[2] Freeman's Journal 21 June 1814

[3] HRA, Series, Vol. IX, p.55