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Convict Ship Chapman 1817

Embarked: 200 men
Voyage: 134 days
Surgeon's Journal: yes
Previous vessel: Shipley arrived 24 April 1817
Next vessel: Pilot arrived 29 July 1817
Master John Drake
Surgeon Superintendent Alexander Dewar
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The Chapman was built at Whitby in 1777. Convicts were transported to Australia on the Chapman in 1817 (NSW) under Captain John Drake and to Van Diemen's Land under Captain John Millbank (1st Mate in 1817) in 1824 and 1826


EMBARKATION OF CONVICTS

Surgeon Alexander Dewar's later evidence gives a timeline for the embarkation of convicts and departure of the Chapman from Cork........

I was appointed Surgeon and Superintendant of the ship Chapman on the 28th November 1816 and went on board on the 29th; and sometime after being there, I received the Instructions ......

We sailed from Deptford about 11th December 1816 and arrived at the Cove of Cork in the early part of January 1817, and there waited the arrival of the convicts from Dublin. [2]

Captain Drake's Journal mentions the completion of the prison rooms on 2nd February - the carpenters completed the prison room and reported the ship was ready for convicts.

On the 5th February we commenced receiving the convicts and had taken them all on board by the 9th or 10th.
[2]



INSTRUCTIONS TO CONVICTS


At the Cove of Cork on 17 February 1817 Surgeon Alexander Dewar compiled a list of instructions and orders he hoped would be followed during the voyage to New South Wales. In the disastrous events that occurred in the following two months, many of his expectations would have been abandoned.......

To the Convicts
It is to be hoped the following rules and regulations may be strictly and cheerfully obeyed during the time you are on board this ship. They are adopted for your internal comfort, and will be highly conducive to your health on the voyage. So long as you conduct yourselves peaceably, soberly and orderly, you may rest assured that every attention, which humanity points out shall be paid to your situation; and, should your conduct meet my approbation on the passage, I shall be careful in representing the particulars to His Excellency the Governor of New South Wales; while at the same time I must observe, the reverse of good kconduct will be visited with approppriate severity.........

1st. The Sabbath day is to be religiously observed
2nd. There is to be no blaspheming, rioting, disputing or gambling, under any pretence whatever.
3rd. All your beds and blankets are to be rolled and lashed up every morning at day light, and ready to be handed on deck with your bags, if thought necessary.
4th. Each person is required to be clean shaved and washed, and to have a clean shirt on, ready to be mustered every Sunday and Thursday.
5th. You are to be divided into seventeen messes, twelve men in each; out of which two will be selected, who are to be called first and second Captain of their respective messes; their duty is to superintend and assist in cleaning that part of the deck, on which they mess, also to see their bedplaces and mess articles are kept clean; and the senior of the mess is to draw the provisions daily, likewise do everything in his power to keep peace and quietness in his berth.
6th. There will be one man appointed to superintend and see the whole prison and bedplaces are kept clean, and also that the beds and blankets are lashed up at the appointed time. He is to be called Captain of the deck.
7th. The prison is to be swept clean, and the dirt taken upon deck and hove overboard immediately after getting up in the mroning, after meals, and before going to bed at night.
8th A certain number will be admitted on deck daily, when the state of the weather permits, the number to be optional with me.
9th. One man from each mess is to take it in turn daily to fill the prison cisterns, and to do other fatiguing duties as may be thought necessary
10th. No washing of clothes is to be allowed in the prison and as little slop or wet as possible is to be made below; whoever wets the deck the superintending captain is to see it immediately swabbed up by the person or persons who made the slop or wet.
11th. There is to be no noise in the prison whatever, at any time of the day, and more especially at night.
12th While the ship remains in this harbour, your friends will be admitted to see you on deck; should they however be detected in bringing spirits on board or anything improper an immediate stop shall be put to this indulgence.
13th. You are to keep your clothes, which require repairing properly mended in order that you may appear neat and respectable.
14th. No smoking nor chewing tobacco is permitted between decks.
15th. Should there be any cause of complaint, or any supposed grievance requiring redress, I am to be made acquainted with it at the time I visit the decks in the morning.....Alexr. Dewar, Surgeon and Superintendent, Cove of Cork 6th February 1817




DEPARTURE

The Chapman departed Cove of Cork, Ireland in company with the Pilot on 25 March 1817.

Seven prisoners were killed and others wounded during at least two separate mutinies on the voyage out.



MUTINY 17 APRIL 1817

An extract from the surgeon's journal tells of the events surrounding the first mutiny on 17th April 1817:

April 1817.

WEDNESDAY 16TH. A.M.
Fresh breezes with variable winds. At 8, Ship's Company employed passing Chain Cable over the Main hatchway. Captain Drake has been induced to adopt this measure for the better security of the prison, as the conduct of the convicts of late has been suspicious, by so many of them taking off their bezzels on various pretences. Prison deck cleaned as usual.
At 10, mustered all the convicts up the main hatchway and down the forescuttle, observing as they passed round from eighty to a hundred of them with their bazzels and chains defective, and a number with only one Bazzel on, and could give no satisfactory account of what had become of the other.

P.M. At 2.30
Michael Collins, convict, communicated to Mr. Baxter, the Mate in charge of the prison deck that it was the intention of the convicts to take the ship and carrie her to America. As soon as this information was made known to Captain Drake, he gave orders for the chain cable to be pssed over the fore and after hatchways for the better security of the ship should any attempt be made by the convicts to pull the stanchions down enclosing the prison. Every other means that chould be devised for our safety was adopted, and a good watch kept during the night.

THURSDAY 17TH. After muster Collins was called into Captain Drake's cabin and strictly examined on the subject he had communicated to Mr Baxter the preceding afternoon. On different questions being put to Collins respecting the wicked intention of the convicts he still persisted in what he had before related, namely that it was certainly the intention of the prisoners to attempt taking the ship, and, if they succeeded, to murder all hands and proceed to America; he further stated that
Francis Murphy, Launchlan McLean, William Morrison, Peter Allan were the principal leaders of the plot, and had sworn all the captains of the different messes to act with their messmates at a proper opportunity; and so sure were they of success that they even named themselves as the succeeding officers of the ship. William Morrison was to be the Captain and wear Captain Drake's Clothes, Lauchlan McLean the Officer of the Guard, and wear his clothing, and Francis Murphy the greatest villain amongst them, to be the Doctor and wear his apparel. Having heard thus much circumstantially detailed, no room was left what measures for safety ought to be followed; accordingly the convicts usually allowed as cooks on deck during the day were immediately ordered below, and every other means adopted for the safety of the ship; Collins not allowed to return below, and taken under our protection.

P.M. At 4, mustered all the convicts up the after hatchways and down the forescuttle, detaining as they went round for suspicious conduct,
John Emns, William Burn, John Doyle the 1st, John Doyle the 2nd, John Murray and John Fox. Punished John Emns with twenty four lashes on his back. John Doyle the 1st with six lashes on the back and two on the breech, John Doyle the 2nd six lashes on his back and two on the breech, John Murray with eight lashes on his back, John Jackson with thirty six lashes on his back, Cornelius Crawley, one of the crew, with thirty six lashes on the back; John Fox escaped punishement by bringing a large file up out of the prison, which the convicts had contrived to get down for the purpose of assisting them to take their bazzels off.

At 5PM, Handcuffed
Francis Murphy and sent the prisoners below.

At 8PM
James Wells, Ship's cook was standing on the grate of the starboard forescuttle and suddenly found it lifting under him. A general alarm throughout the ship was immediately given that the convicts were forcing the scuttles forward; at the same time, a strong party of them was distinctly heard to run quickly aft in the prisoenr towards the hospital Bulkhead, the door of which they thrust open but did not come any further aft, as a brisk fire of musketry was opened upon them by the guard and crew from the loopholes in the aftermost bulkhead and down the hatchways. Soon after the firing commenced, some of the convicts were heard to call out, fire away, we will given you no quarters.

About 9PM, ceased firing as the prisoners called out for mercy At the commencement,
George Murray one of the crew, was shot through the body by accident and instantly expired. When everything was restored to quietness, enquiry was made to known the number of killed and wounded. which could not be exactly ascertained owing to its being dark, and it was not deemed prudent to visit the prison until morning. All hands at Quarters during the night.

April 18 A.M.
At 5AM, sent a message down into the prison demanding files, saws and pieces of iron we had received information they had amongst them, with a positive assurance if they did not intstantly comply, the guard and crew would again begin firing upon them, and continue to do so while a living convict remained in the prison; to which message the prisoners return for answer, they would give up everything and beggd to be spared a few minutes to search for them; at the expiration of of a short time; several articles were produced such as pieces of iron etc, during the period granted to find these articles, many things were observed to be thrown out at the scuttles, supposed to be the saws and files we had received information of, as they were not produced with the pieces of iron etc. The prison was now visited and
Lauchlan McLenan, Daniel McCormick, George Stephenson found killed, likewise twenty two wounded. Many of them severely. Punished the following principal conspirators, viz Barnard Kelly with 36 lashes on the back, William Grady 26, William Connor 24, William Leo 36, Thomas Magiff 30, John Doyal 8, Francis Murphy 17, John Flood 24, Edward Donoghough 30, Michael Savage 36, William Nelson, one of the crew, 24.

P.M. Committed the bodies of the deceased to the deep viz,
John Murray (seaman), George Stephenson, Daniel McCormick, and Lauchlan McLean, convicts. Made Francis Murphy, Michael Savage, William Leo, John Doyal, Edward Donohough, John Jackson and William Morrison prisoners on the poop. As soon as the wounded were cleaned and dressed, and cleaned the prison deck and sprinkled it with vinegar. Fine pleasant weather. Two discharged out of the sick list, and twenty two cases of gun shot wounds added.

Saturday 19th A.M.
Fresh breezes from the S.W. with occasional showers of rain. prison deck cleaned as usual. Captain Drake with his principal officers employed examining and completing the prisoners bazzels.

P.M. Fresh breezes and clear weather. Punished in the course of the day forty six of the convicts principally for having their irons defective.
Sunday 20th - Got all the convicts clothing and bedding on deck to be examined and aired. Washed the lower deck throughout the prison room. Noon fine pleasant weather.
P.M. At 4, sent the convicts bedding and clothing below. Wounded for the most part doing well. No addition to the sick list.

Monday 21st. P.M
Completed the whole of the prisoners bazzels that were found defective, and punished 33 of them for having them so; at 5, departed this life Thomas Mullholland; at 5.40 committed the body of the deceased to the deep. The Guard and Convicts have this day been served with half an ounce of lime juice and half an ounce of sugar to each person, to be by my request continued daily during the remainder of the passage to New South Wales. The prison deck has been sprinkled all over with vinegar and the hospital fumigated.

Wednesday 23rd. Expired suddenly James Roberts, convict at 9. Punished James McGreene with 17 lashes on his back, Matthew Daw with 18, John McDonna 18, for being found with their bazzels muffled.

Thursday 24th at 10.
Punished Thomas Higgins with 12 lashes on the back and 12 on the breeech for insolence to James Talbot, captain of the deck, and saying all was not over with them in the prison yet.....Mustered all the convicts up the after hatchway and down the forescuttle as formerly, serving to each person as he came up a gill of wine. At 9 punished Christopher Kelly with 12 lashes on his back for uncleanness and John Hoy with 12 on the back for insolence.

Friday 25th....Departed this life Daniel Parker. Punished Thomas Hall with 24 lashes on the back for rattling his chains in the night and alarming the sentinel; John Dooly 24 lashes for the same offence, Joseph Morton 24 lashes on the breech for attempting to take off his bazzels....

Sunday 27th....Punished William Leo with 4 lashes on the back and John McArdel with 12, the former for isolence to the corporal of the guard, the latter for rattling his chains in the night. At 9, the alarm was given that the convicts were again attempting to rise. All hands were immediatley under arms; but it was soon discovered the convicts were not attempting anything but bad, the alarm originating in some of them incautiously getting hastily out of bed and making more rattling with their chains than usual....

Monday 28th....P.M.
Patrick McCusker brought up out of the prison being accused by Bryan Kelly of having in the prison concealed a bar of iron, a large knife, and two files, for the purpose of assisting him to break out of the prison; also on Saturday last of swearing in his messmeates and others to assist in again attempting to take the ship at the same time persuading them to fight until reduced to ten men. Punished Patrick McCusker with 24 lashes on his back and made him a prisoner on the poop. At 7.30 the sentinel forward gave the alarm that parties of the convicts were consulting each other. James Clements, another of the Guard, overhead some of them say, Half of us attempt the fore hatchway, the other half the sic bay and after bulk head into the gurd room. At 8.30 The alarm was given that a party of the convicts were rushing aft, causing several muskets to be fired down the hatchways, which soon restored quietness in the prison. At 10, the prison was visited and John McArdel found shot, with four others wounded. Bryan Kelly was likewise shot on the poop.....

Tuesday 29th...at 4, Departed this life Oliver Wallace; at 8 committed to bodies of the deceased John MArdel, Bryan Kelly and Oliver Wallace to the deep.....Confined fifty four convicts with part of the chain cable on the prison deck during the night.

Thursday May 1st....P.M. Musered all the prisoners up the main hatchway and down the fore scuttle as usual, serving to each person a gill of wine; the prisoners on the poop, Edward Donoghough, Willim Leo, F. Murphy, John Jackson, Thomas Kenna, Michael Savage, John Doyle, Peter Allan, William Momrrison, Patrick McCusker excepted; at 6 confined them to a stanchion on the orlop deck, and the same number on the chain cable in the prison as last night.

Friday 24 A.M....Moderate Breezes and fine weather. Prison deck cleaned as heretofore. Punished Patrick McKenna with 18 lashes on the back for making use of the words if we don't take the ship in fine weather, we will in bad. P.M. at 4, punished Francis Murphy with 24 lashes on the back for having in his possession an instrucment for the purpose of taking off the close prisoners handcuffs and wishing Peter Allan to make use of it in that way. 73 confined on the chain cable in the prison during the night.

Monday 5th....Punished Patrick McKenna with 12 lashes on the breech and Thomas Maralow with 12 on the back, for being out of bed at an improper hour and rattling their chains. At 11, punished Thomas Kenna with 12 lashes on the back and 12 on the breech. Patrick Ward with 12 on the back, James Johnston 21 on the back, John Flynn and William Leo 12 on the back, all for suspicous conduct.
[1]

The above account of the first mutiny on 17th April was from the Surgeon's Journal.


MUTINY ON 17 APRIL - 2ND VERSION

The following extract from an account in the The Edinburgh Annual Register, Volume 12 edited by Walter Scott gives another version of the events of 17 April 1817...........

Charge of Murder on Board a Convict Ship.

Admiralty Sessions, Tuesday, January 12.

John Drake, Alexander Dewar, and Christopher Bustead, were indicted for the wilful murder of
Daniel McCormick, on board the convict ship Chapman, on the 17th of April 1817, being then on the High Seas.

Patrick Smith was a prisoner on board the Chapman in April 1817. There were about 200 persons on board altogether. He remembered the 17th of April. He was in bed about 9 o'clock on the night of that day, and was alarmed by the report of a gun; after that he had heard several more : it appeared as if proceeding down the main hatch. He heard the soldiers run over the deck, and the cry was raised of “Mind the fore hatch,” “Mind the main hatch,” &c., and then the firing continued very briskly for nearly two hours. He did not remember any particular remarks made at the time by the soldiers, but about the close of it he heard the prisoner, Captain Drake, give orders to cease firing.

He heard not the least noise among the prisoners before the firing commenced. He was not amongst the prisoners; being allowed to act as surgeon’s mate, he was permitted to sleep in the sick-bay. After the firing had nearly ceased, he heard the convicts cry out, “ Mercy,” “Mercy,” several times. He heard nothing but moans after that for the night. In the morning, he saw McCormick with two other persons brought in ; McCormick was dead.

The prisoner Dewar came down in the morning earlier than usual. Witness heard him say to the convicts “You brought it upon yourselves"

Cross-examined by the Common Sergeant. - Did not hear the convicts confess that they had brought it upon themselves. They made no answer to the charge of having brought it upon themselves. He always heard the convicts say they were innocent. He persisted in saying that there was no rush of the prisoners before the firing commmenced. There was none near the part where he was; and if there had been any, he must have heard it in the morning, he saw the door of the bulk-head somewhat damaged, but that was caused by the firing. One ball had struck the box into which the bolt shot, and broke it and two others struck the hinge, so that the door fell open. He never heard that the guard was turned to twice on the night of the 12th, five days before the present transaction He knew Hoyle, one of the convicts and heard him complain of having been severely used by his fellow prisoners. This was before the 17th he did not hear him say that the ill usage was caused by his refusal to take an oath. He heard the convicts charged with administering oaths to each other, but he knew of no such oaths.

By the Court. - He never heard of any disturbance before the 17th He knew that several of the convics had got off their irons. There was less that 80 in that situation. There were some men punished before.” 17th, but he did not recollect it was for breaking their irons.

John Fagan examined by Mr. Gaselee. - Was a convict on board the Chapman, and was in the habit of occasionally assisting the Doctor in the hospital. His account of firing and of the conduct of the convicts was nearly similar to that given by the last witness. In his cross-examination, he said, he did not know of any misconduct on the part of the convicts. About five days before the 17th he heard an alarm on deck, and a shot fired, but could not say what was the Cause.

Francis Murphy examined by Mr Reynolds - Witness was a convict on board the Chapman, on the 17th of April. There was a muster of the prisoners that morning, but it was not to examine their irons. He went to bed about seven o’clock. Not many of the convicts then remained up. About nine he heard a running on deck, and soon after that a firing down the main hatchway. Baxter, the third mate, thrust a cutlass down the scuttle, and cried out, “You d-d convicted villains, are you coming on deck? but we are ready for you.” Witness heard Lieutenant Bustead say,"Fire away;” and Captain Drake said, “You d-d convicted villains, We shall soon be between decks with you; we'll fire amongst you and scatter you.” The convicts cried out for mercy several times. There had been no noise among them more than usual, on the early part of that night.

Cross-examined by Mr Alley.— He had been in three gaols in Ireland, and was bred up in the victualling line, but was never a doctor. He did not know that he was to be doctor when the ship was taken and the crew murdered. Dr Dewar charged him with such an intention, but it was not the case. He never confessed to any person that he was to be doctor, or that the guard and crew were to be murdered. He was called upon deck the day after the firing, Placed upon his knees, and a blunderbuss presented to his head by Baxter, who told him he would blow his brains out, unless he confessed. He was then asked, whether he did not know that a plan had been laid to take the ship, and murder the crew. He never said to several persons on that occasion, “It was God’s truth, that it was the intention of the convicts to murder the officers and guard.” He was certain he never said any thing like it to any body. He never went round for the purpose of administering an oath, and never saw or heard of one being administered. On the 16th, there was a muster for examining the irons. There were only six or seven persons with their irons filed off. He did not hear Captain Drake say, “Soldiers, cease firing, and we shall see whether we cannot make them quiet by going below.”

Peter Allen, a man of colour, (examined by Sir C. Robinson,) was also a convict on board the Chapman. He remembered the 17th of April. On the night of that day he heard one of the soldiers call out to Captain Drake that there were some men at the hatchway; to which the Captain replied, “Fire away.” The firing then commenced, and continued till he was wounded. After that he could not tell what passed, having been rendered speechless and insensible by the shot. There had been no previous disturbance among the prisoners. The next morning he was called upon deck by Captain Drake, and told to confess who were the ringleaders of the mutiny, but he said he knew nothing of it. He was then told to prepare for death, but was afterwards sent below. Cross-examined by the Common Sergeant.--He had heard of the guard being called up a few evenings before the 17th. There was a row, which he heard was caused by some of the convicts attempting to get on deck by the cable scuttle. He never saw any person attempt to get up.

By the Court.—There were only two or three up when he went to bed ; but he admitted that, in his defence before the Magistrates, he had sworn there were twenty convicts up at that time.

John Ryan, examined by the Attorney-General. - Was a convict on board the Chapman, and remembered the 17th of April. There had been no noise or disturbance of any kind among the prisoners before the firing commenced. Cross-examined by Mr Alley.— Witness was examined in the cabin a few days after the 17th. On that occasion he acknowledged that Morrison, McLaughlin, Peter Allen, and some others, were the ringleaders of the mutiny, and that the object was to murder the Captain and crew, and to take the ship. He also said on that occasion, that the reason why the 17th was fixed upon was, that they would then be near the Line, and of course nearer to the coast of America. The whole of the crew were to be murdered, with the exception of one sailor, who was to be kept as long as there was any use for him, and then to be thrown overboard. A hundred of the convicts were to be kept with irons on, in order to deceive any King's ship might board them. Frank Murphy (one of the witnesses) was to be doctor, Morrison to be captain, and Peter Allen (another witness) was to be chief mate. The plan was, (as he said then,) that a feint attack was to be made on one part of the ship, the better to cover the real one, which was to be made on another part. He told all this at the time, merely to save his life. He told the same story when he arrived in harbour to Mr Campbell, the Secretary to the Governor; but when he got on shore he denied it all, because it was not true.

Re-examined by the Attorney-General. - The story he told to the Captain was not true. He told it to save his life. Collins, another convict who had been called into the cabin, was in it when witness entered. The Doctor and the Captain asked him to say all he knew about it, but he said that he was as ignorant of anything about a mutiny as the child unborn. The Doctor said, “I’ll make you know : you shall be flogged and shot after.” The Captain the came, and importuned him to it. what he knew, adding, that he would save his life by confessing as Collins did; that he would be sent home, and should have a great deal of money. He then confessed all the Collins told him, but it was not true. He told the same thing to Mr Campbell, but he was then a prisoner.

To a question by the Court, he answered, that he was not in irons but could walk about along with the sailors.

William Lea examined by Mr. Gaselee. - He remembered the night of the firing : it lasted about two hours and a half. He was brought on deck the next morning, put on his knees along with others, and told, that as he was the greatest rascal he should die first. He was asked whether he had a cap to put over his eyes. He said no. One of the sergeants pulled his shirt off his head. He was then informed that he had but ten minutes to live and desired to confess. He told them he had nothing to say, but was ready to die, and they might fire as soon as they liked. He was asked whether he would take his oath that had not been sworn as to the mutiny" said he did not wish to be sworn.” he was going to die. The Doctor then said that they (the soldiers) might fire away as soon as they pleased. He was after that taken up by the Doctor and ordered to be flogged; but he was not flogged. He was tied to a rope and thrown astern, and towed after the ship for some time. He was ducked nine or ten times. This was by the Doctor’s order. When he was taken on board he was frequently afterwards punished, and was kept chained to the poop for fourteen weeks, until they were within a few days’ sail of New South Wales. On one occasion, he made some confessions to the Doctor; but he did so to save his life, and what he said was not true. He only answered yes or no to the questions put by the Doctor.

Cross-examined by the Common Sergeant - He used sometimes to work for the armourer, but never took any tools from him. He was put in irons the day before the firing, and was afterwards told that it was in consequence of his having been accused as one of the ringleaders.

Examined by the Court. - When he was asked by the Doctor who was to be armourer of the ship, he said that he was. When asked, where the ship was to be taken, he said to America. He had said before that no person had told him anything of the mutiny, and that he only answered yes or no to the questions of the Doctor. He now said that his memory was bad, and he could not recollect positively.

Thomas Turner, a soldier of the guard on board the Chapman, remembered the night of the 17th of April, as he was on duty from six to eight o'clock. He got orders to fire if the prisoners should attempt to come up. He got no orders on that might different from those he received on other occasions. He heard a noise in the prisons below, as if a rush was made fore and aft. He called down to the convicts, to know what was the matter, but received no answer. He then heard some of the soldiers say, that the convicts were forcing the bulk-head. Soon after this he heard the firing. It was towards the sick-bay. He heard no orders given to fire, and could not say whether it was commenced by the soldiers or sailors. The firing lasted about a quarter of an hour. He did not see any of the convicts until after the firing had ceased. He then saw some of them come round under the main hatchway, and heard them cry out for mercy, and say it was their own fault for beginning it. During the firing he did not see any of the three prisoners at the bar.

Cross-examined by Mr Alley. - When the convicts begged for mercy, and said it was their own fault, mercy was shewn to them. There was a number of persons dressed, and walking about; they did not appear as if they had been in bed. There was a great noise, as of a violent rush. He remembered the inspection of the irons on the 12th. The rivets of many of them had been filed off, and some rope-yarn stuffed into the place of them. By this means they thought to pass muster, and when they got down they could easily shake their irons off. About sixty of them were found with their irons off one morning. They frequently broke them after their being repaired. On the day after the firing, he found the bar under the scuttle had been bent, which must have been done from below. If those bars had been removed, the convicts could have come on deck four at a time. There was such confusion on deck, that the soldiers did not know for some time whether the ship was their own, or in possession of the convicts.

By the Court. - The lock and the hinge of the door of the partition were broken; not as if struck by a bullet, but by force of another kind. During the confusion, he heard some person in the prison say, that if the convicts could get the upper hand, they would give no quarter.

Richard Vickery was a soldier on board the Chapman. The prisoner, Lieutenant Bustead, was his commander. On the night of the 17th of April, the sick-bay door was broken open, and he heard a rush. All the soldiers were ordered to arms, and to muster on the quarter-deck. In about five minutes after, the firing commenced; and during the firing, Bustead was the only one of the prisoners he saw.

Cross-examined. — There was a rush aft and a-head at the same time. The soldiers all thought their lives were in danger; and if the convicts had got possession of the ship, none of the crew would have been left alive.





SECOND MUTINY

A second mutiny took place on the 27th - 28th April and several more convicts were punished or killed. Some of the events of this mutiny were revealed at the trial in England of James Clements and John Drake who were put to the bar, and arraigned for the wilful murder of John McArdle, on the 28th of April 1817, off St Jago, on board a convict ship called the Chapman, on the High Seas. The prisoners both pleaded not guilty.

Sir Christopher Robinson, the King's Advocate, opened the case to the Jury. He observed, that no subject of greater difficulty than the present case could be presented before any Court; the question now to be decided being, whether the prisoners at the bar had not gone much beyond the power entrusted to them.

The prisoner John Drake was Captain of the convict-ship Chapman, on board which the murder was committed ; and it was but fair to state, with regard to him, that this case had undergone some kind of investigation at Botany Bay. In consequence of an application to a Supreme Tribunal, the Captain had been allowed to go on bail; and he had this day surrendered himself to the laws of his country.

The ship Chapman sailed from Cork on the 14th of March 1817, with about two hundred convicts, a crew nearly as numerous, and forty soldiers. For the first three weeks after the departure of the vessel nothing particular occurred; but on the 17th of April, a melancholy conflict occurred between the commander of the vessel and the convicts, under the supposition of an insurrection on the part of the convicts, and the consequence was the loss of many lives This occurrence was not yet made the subject of a separate indictment.

The principal transaction was that of the 28th of April, and to this the evidence would be chiefly directed The leading testimony against the prisoner was that of the convicts, (who for this purpose had received the King's pardon), confirmed, however, as they probably would be, in the most material circumstances, by the soldiers, against whose evidence the same suspicion would not exist. The Attorney-General, Mr Gaselee, and Mr Reynolds, were also counsel for the prosecution.

The first witness called was Terence Kiernan. He stated, that in March 1817, he was shipped on board a vessel called the Chapman, in the Cove of Cork. Several other convicts besides himself were shipped for Botany Bay, on board the Chapman. There were about two hundred convicts in all. The prisoner at the bar, John Drake, was Captain of the Chapman, and Clements was a marine on board the ship. After having sailed from St Jago, on the night of the 17th of April, a contest took place. He was not certain of the day, as he was not allowed to keep a log-book. Any convict with writing in his possession, he said, was immediately brought upon deck and put to death. On the 17th of April, several of the irons of the convicts were broken, and witness’s among the rest. On this day there was a great contest; and on the 27th or 28th of April following, another firing took place.

The greater part of the convicts were confined between decks. Before the firing commenced on the 27th of April, he was in his birth, close to the deck on the starboard side, when he heard Baxter (one of the officers of the ship) say to Clements, “ Are you there " Clements said, “I am.”

Baxter then said, “ Raise a false alarm, and we will kill every bloody one of them.”

Clements said, “We will; but it is too soon yet. Wait till the gentlemen go to bed, and then we will have more time.”

Baxter replied, “It is a very good time now ; the gentlemen are all in their cabins; and when you begin, don’t be commanded by Captain, Doctor, or Officers, and I’ll " be accountable.”

He (Keirnan) then heard a sound, which he supposed to be the drawing of a ramrod. Witness lay in his birth, under the starboard fore scuttle. He heard Clements use some expression about the Irish, and said, “I will let go.” He then put the muzzle of his gun down the scuttle, and fired his piece. The firing then became general, and it lasted nearly an hour and a half. Witness continued in his birth all the time, and never left it.

Some time after the firing had ceased, Baxter, accompanied with soldiers, came among the convicts, and he there saw his messmate, John McArdle, dead in his birth. He appeared to have been killed by a bullet fired from some piece. The ball entered at the bottom of his stomach, and remained in his body. He believed the shot which killed this man had come from the soldiers’ apartment.

Cross-examined by Mr Common Sergeant. - He never was in any gaol before the larceny for which he had been transported. He knew a man of the name of Crawley, a sailor on board the Chapman, who was put in irons for giving instruments to the convicts to break their irons. Witness himself broke his middle iron with a broom stick, and he saw seven or eight other convicts with their irons broken. Witness broke his irons before he arrived at St Jago, and before the 17th of April he had a new iron put on. He swore that before the 27th of April there were not one hundred and twenty convicts with their irons broken.

He recollected a lever, and a piece of tin in the shape of a knife, being found in the birth of himself and his messmate. He was flogged for this offence, and received double punishment for speaking Latin to the Doctor. The Doctor said, “You are a good scholar, but a d-d rascal, and shall receive double punishment for it.” The convicts made pieces of tin into knives to cut their meat, not being allowed knives. There was a Bible in the convict prison, but he never heard any oath administered. Dr Dewar and Michael Collins had said, that oaths had been taken by the convicts to be true to themselves, and to take the ship. Collins was a convict himself. There was a convict also of the name of Francis Murphy. Witness never heard Murphy say that it was his intention to murder all the crew.

Baxter, the officer, died on the voyage home. After the firing of the 17th he never saw any attempt to force the prison door. The door was perforated in many places and he supposed one of the bullets must have hit one of the hinges, as next morning he saw the door hanging on one hinge.

Examined by the Bench. - He was designed by his father for the Church of Rome. The Bible found was not his property, but that of a Mr MacCoster. The muzzles of the muskets were fixed between the gratings of the hatchway. He did not see Clement fire down into the prison, and only imagined he had done so by what he had said. To the best of his belief there were about twenty irons found broken. The soldiers had frequently ill used the convicts, and witness had refused to go on deck to get his allowance of wine in consequence of it. Until the 17th of April the convicts had nothing to complain of. Witness lay in a birth next to the deck.

Thomas Kelly was next called, and stated that he was also a convict on board the Chapman in March 1817.

On the 27th of April, about 8 o’clock at night, he lay in the upper birth of the starboard fore-scuttle. While in this situation he heard Clements ask who was that talking Irish below. One of the convicts answered that there was no one talking Irish. Clements then said, “If you do not keep quiet, I will let go.” He immediately fired his musket. Witness saw the flash, but not the muzzle, of the gun. Witness had been wounded in the contest of the 17th of April. The general firing commenced a minute or two after the first gun was fired, and continued for about two hours. The convicts cried out for mercy. John McArdle was killed in his birth, and witness's brother, Bryan Kelly, also received a mortal wound.

Cross-examined. - When onboard the ship, he never saw anyone sworn to murder the crew or to do anything else.

Examined by the Bench—Witness slept in the upper birth, and Terence Kiernan slept under him in the lower birth. There were two tiers of births in the ship. Witness, although he lay so near the deck, heard no conversation between Baxter and Clements.

Michael Wood, also a convict, was on board the Chapman. On the night of the 27th of April, he was in his birth, and heard Clements ask what noise there was below. A convict of the name of Murray said, that there was no noise. Clements repeated twice that he would let go, and then fired his musket. The firing then commenced from the fore, after, and main hatchways. It lasted for more than an hour. There were six wounded in this affair of the 28th of April. The chain cable was so placed as to prevent persons below from coming on deck. The anchor was placed on the scuttle.

Cross-examined. - He heard no conversation on deck. He heard no threat among the convicts to throw the soldiery overboard, nor did he see any locks picked. He saw no convict with his irons broken. Dr Dewar had the irons taken off about thirty-five convicts because they were poorly. He never said to Jesse Warburton that there was a conspiracy among the convicts to seize the ship, murder the officer and crew, and carry the vessel to America.

John Brown, one of the marines on board the Chapman, was place on guard on the 28th April. He was in the cabin when the firing commenced. He heard a rushing down below. He came out, and heard it said that the convicts had got upon deck. It was quite dark, and he heard great noise. He heard no orders given by Capt. Drake. The firing continued about ten minutes. After the firing had ceased, he saw Captain Drake on the quarter-deck.

Cross-examined. - The soldiers, and himself among them, slept upon their arms for six weeks, for fear of being murdered by the prisoners. As soon as the ship had passed St Jago, all the crew thought their lives in danger. It was the intention of the convicts to take the ship, and murder all the crew. After the firing on the 28th, witness went down into the prison among the convicts with Mr Baxter, and one of the convicts addressing Baxter said, “You may thank Corporal Brown (witness) for being present, or we would blanket you;” and witness understood this expression as an intimation that they would smother him.

George Cook was another marine on board the Chapman. On the night of the 28th of April, the first thing he heard was a report of a musket. The firing lasted for almost ten minutes. He did not know by whose orders the firing commenced, and did not see Captain Drake till after the firing was over.

Cross-examined. - He believed if the firing had not commenced, the ship would have been taken, and the crew murdered. He heard the convicts say, “Fire away, fire away; your ammunition will soon be gone, and we will take the ship.” He heard a rush of the convicts in a body against the prison-door, and it was forced off the hinges. They had then only to break through the bulk-head to get possession of the magazine of arms and ammunition.

Collins, one of the convicts, stated, that the day after the ship left St Jago, it was their intention to take the ship, had not the Northumberland seventy-four gun-ship hove in sight. It was intended (Collins added) to throw the sentinels down the hatchway, to fasten the officers down in the cabin, and to seize the arms. Between the nights of the 17th and 28th of April several gun-flints and locks had been taken from the guns of the sentinels, and ten rounds of cartridges were abstracted. Collins also said that a feint attack was intended to be made, and the main body was to follow and take the ship. This closed the evidence for the prosecution.

Mr Justice Park said, that as no evidence had been adduced affecting Captain Drake, he should not call upon him for his defence. The Attorney-General suggested, whether it would not be proper, with respect to Clements, to ask the opinion of the jury whether the story told against him was believed.

Mr. Justice Best. - Which of the stories do you meanMr. Justice Best. - Which of the stories do you mean, Mr Attorney, for they all contradict each other ? The jury declared their opinion, that there was no occasion to put either of the prisoners upon their defence, and they were consequently acquitted.

Surgeon Dewar to the members of the Committee
Mr. Judge Advocate and Gentlemen,
Never did I feel so much difficulty in expressing myself as upon the present occasion, after having had the honor of serving his Majesty from 1802 to this period, and having during that time received the unqualified approbation of the Officers under whom I have served; and whose distance at this time I have most deeply to lament, as their testimony, as to my integrity, humanity and punctual attention in the discharge of my duty would have fully satisfied the Committee that I could never have become an Actor, or willing instrument, in acts of fraud, tyrannical conduct and oppressive cruelty, with which , though I a not specifically charged, I feel myself involved in by the course the proceedings have taken. No one can more lament than myself the dreadful occurrences that happened on board the Chapman, and which have occasioned the present enquiry; but in the statement, which I shall submit to the consideration of the Committee, supposted by the evidence already adduced, and which I shall adduce, I feel confident that you will fully acquit me of those charges or of having been instrumental in causing the dreadful events that took place.


At the time of receiving them, I had frequent conversation with the officer of the Guard and Master of the Brig Atlas, who brought them from Dublin, respecting the conduct of the convicts during the passage from that Port to the Cove of cork, both of whom told me several times and separately that the men were very notorious, riotous characters, that they had laid a plan to take the brig and had made an attempt to put it in execution, but were discovered in time and prevented.

Shortly after they were on board, I had been on Shore, and on my return was told that the convicts were the night before attempting to pick the locks but that they had not succeeded. Nothing further occurred till after we sailed which was on the 14th March.

On 22nd March the sentinel at the fore hatchway reported that the convicts were picking the locks; the crew and guard were immediately under Arms, Captain Drake, a Mate, one of the Guard and myself went round the prison and found all quiet. At 12 oclock an alarm was again given by the sentinel, again groundless. The following morning two sentries Peter Cocker and Cornelius Crawley were placed in the hatchway by the officer on deck. The convicts were quiet till the arrival at St. Jago and during the stay at that port.

On the morning of 7th April after the ship had got under weigh Mr. Baxter came to see me and said the convicts refused to clean the deck.

On 12th April John Jackson one of the convicts who acted for them in seeing their rations regularly supplied came to me while I was in the sick bay and said the convicts objected to having fresh beef however it was served.

On that evening an alarm was given that the convicts were breaking out; at that time I was in the Cuddy, in company with the Officer of the Guard and Mr. Drake the Captain's brother; I immediately went out, when I heard the convicts were on deck and running up the rigging; Lanthorns were procured and two musquet fired into the rigging; it was after some enquiry found that the alarm originated in William Nelson, a seaman, not answering to the challenge of the sentry while he was down the main hatchway where he ought not to have been at the time. Nelson was later punished.

About this time I found it necessary to confine John Jackson, Michael Savage and Edward Donohugh in the orlop deck for insolent conduct to me but no corporal punishment was inflicted on them or on William Leo.

About 8 oclock the same night I was sitting in the cuddy with Mr. Busteed, the officer of the guard and Mr. Drake the Captain's brother when I heard a shot fired; I immediately went upon deck, and I the observed a general alarm and heard Captain Drake say here they come. After this the firing became general. At this time the gretaest terror, alarm and confusion prevailed; my enquiries were fruitless s to the cause; some said the convicts were forcing the scuttles and coming up foreward; others that they had forced the hospital door and were coming up aft; in this time of horror and confusion each fearing his neighbour from the circumstance of Cralwy and Nelson being considered traitors, the soldiers and ssailors were in the greatest disorder, and not under the lest command; indeed such was the confusion that one of the crew was shot in the after hatchway; but, as soon as it was satisfactorily ascertained that the convicts were safe in the prison , every exertion was mde by Lieut. Butee,d Capt. Drake, and myself and by the officers of the ship to stop the firsing but in vain, as the minds of the soldiers and sailors were so exasperated, it was impossible to reason with or restrain them. The women, at the early part of the alarm were put in the cuddy; and as they suffered much from their fears, even to fainting, I went in occasionally to quiet and sooth them.......

On the night of the 27th April there was an alarm again but no firing took place.

On the forenoon of the 28th April, Bryan Kelly, a convict then a prisoner on the poop sent for me and declared in the presence of many of the soldiers, that Ptrick McCusker 8 or 9 days previously had begun to swear in his mess and others to attempt to take the ship and to stand by each other till there were only ten men left.

On the nightof 28th April I was sitting in the cuddy with Mr. Busteed nd Mr. Richard DRake, when I heard a shor fired; I instantly went out and I heard Capt. Drake calling out,. We exerted ourselves to stop the firing; after continuing about a quarter of an hour, it ceased; while I was forward in the act of suppressing the firing a shot passed very near me; I mention this circumstance because I was afterwards informed by Capt. Drake and his brother, that they heard some of the guard on the quarter deck call out, shoot the bloody Doctor; and Capt. Drake advised me to be cautious of moving about on Deck at night. On this night one was killed in the prison and five wounded andBryan Kelly was killed on the poop; I made very enquiry t the time but coud not discover who did it; I hve since heard it was John Jordan a soldier......

On the morning of the 24 th May I was in my bed asleep, and was awoke by the noise of shot firing; I instantly went upon deck and found Mr. Busteed and Capt. Drake who informed me that the soldiers, under some apprehensions of the convicts rising in the Jully Boat had fired upon them and wouned John Jackon, a convict, Francis Lucy, Cornelius Crawley and William Nelson, seamen. The firing had ceased before I got on the poop. I returned to the quarter deck and after 10 minutes I heard a shot fired and heard Francis Lucy was killed. I could not ascertain at the time who killed him but have since heard it was a soldier by the name of John Hogan.

The committee will thus see that the firing commenced each time while I was in the Cuddy or in bed; I therefore submit to them that no charge can attach to me as the instigator or promoter of it, and I trust I shall prove that I exerted myself to the utmost of my power and at the hazard of my life to suppress it
. Historical Records of Australia. [2]



PORT JACKSON

The Chapman arrived in Port Jackson 26th July 1817.



CONVICT MUSTER

Colonial Secretary John Thomas Campbell held a muster of 176 male prisoners on 31st July and 1st August 1817.

After the Chapman arrived and Governor Macquarie heard of the cruelty towards convicts, a colonial enquiry was undertaken. Read Colonial Secretary John Thomas Campbell's summation here.

No charges were laid and the Captain, Mate and witnesses returned to England.........

Governor Macquarie to Earl Bathurst......Yielding therefore to the weight of the first Law Authority in the Colony, I have now the honour to inform your Lordship that Three Soldiers of the 46th regt., who belonged to the deparchment on board the Chapman, namely James Clements, John Hogan, and John Jordan, are now embarked on the ship Harriet as prisoners for trial on specific charges of murder, and Mr. Alexander Dewar, Surgeon in R.N. and Lieut. Busteed of the 69th regt., who commanded the MIlitary Guard on board are also embarked under close Military Arrest to abide such charges as may be prefereed against them; with these, are also embarked as witnesses ten soldiers and fourteen convicts.

They were later charged and found not guilty............

The evidence having proceeded thus far, Mr Justice Best addressed the jury, observing, that the Learned Counsel, on the part of the prosecution, at the suggestion of himself and his learned brother, had refrained from calling any more witnesses until the opinion of the gentlemen of the jury had been known. It was the opinion of the Bench, that the provocation in this case given by the convicts completely justified the rigorous measures taken to quell this insurrection. The jury immediately acquitted all the prisoners, and they were consequently discharged.



NOTES AND LINKS

1). Convicts and passengers of the Chapman identified in the Hunter Valley

2). Convict James McGreavy held a publicans license for the Victoria Inn in Watt Street Newcastle in the 1830's and 1840's. James' wife Margaret McGreavy arrived on the Elizabeth in 1818

3). Hell Ship Chapman - by Oxley Batman - The World's News 19 January 1952

4). Lieut. Christopher Busteed was made a Freeman of the City of Cork for his gallant action at the Battle of Waterloo. He died in 1827 - Nick Reddan's newspaper extracts.




CONVICTS, PASSENGERS, SEAMEN AND SOLDIERS

Convicts, passengers, seamen and guards mentioned in the enquiries into the conduct of Captain John Drake, Surgeon Alexander Dewar and others included:

Alldridge, 2nd mate

Peter Allen - Convict. Man of colour (ringleader)

William Ardle punished for rattling his chains on 28th April

James Miles Baxter - 3rd mate. Officer of the ship

Michael Bennett - convict - one of 4 men punished for noise and disputing with others in the prison 9 July

James Bigley - seaman deserted from ship on arrival 27 July

Lawrence Biran - convict punished for theft on 23 June

John Blakeley, convict died from wounds on 8 May

Corporal John Brown - Guard

James Burn - Convict

William Burn - On 18 April detained for suspicious conduct. One of five men punished on 18th April

Lieut. Christopher Busteed of 69th regt, in command of the military guard on the Chapman. Sent to England under military arrest.

Gifford Campion - 4th mate

James Clements - 46th regiment guard. Sent to England to be tried for murder.

Peter Cocker - seaman

James Collins, convict - died on 29 May

John Collins gave evidence on 21 May against William Lucas.

Michael Collins - Convict. Informed Mr. Baxter that the convicts meant to take the ship, murder all on board, and take ship to America.. On 6 June confined for giving false information against Kennedy

Charles Connell - convict punished for heaving a pick lock into Jamieson's berth.

Connor - One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April

Cornelius Connor - convict punished on 16 May for calling Mr. Baxter a d---d rogue

Richard Connor - convict - punished on 21 June for making a noise

William Connor - punished with 24 lashes on the back after the mutiny on 18 April

George Cook - marine

William Corran - Convict one of 4 men punished for noise and disputing with others in the prison 9 July

Cornelius Crawley - seaman

Thomas Crawley - seaman. Suspected of being in collusion with convicts. Punished on 18 April with 36 lashes on his back

Charles Darly - One of 6 convicts punished on 8 June

Dawe - one of three convicts punished on 24th April for muffling their irons in the night.

Matthew Dawe - Punished on 5 July for making a noise in the night

John Dempsey - convict punished on 5th July for uncleanliness

John Dodley - One of 6 men punished on 8 June

Edward Donohough - convict chained to stauncheons on orlop on suspicion of being one of three principal conspirator on 14th April. One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April m 30 lashes

Dooley - one of three prisoners punished for rattling chains and alarming sentry and attempting to take off their irons

John Dooley - convict punished for uncleanliness. Punished on 31 May with 24 lashes for cutting main deck in prison; punished on 21 June for making noise in the night

John Doyle 1st - One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April . Punished with six lashes on the back and 2 on the breech.

John Doyle 2nd - One of five men punished on 18th April. Six lashes on back and two on breech

Richard Drake - passenger, brother of the captain.

Martin Dungannon - convict punished for muffling his irons, 24 lashes. Punished on 31 May with 36 lashes for cutting main deck in prison.

John Emns - On 18 April detained for suspicious conduct and punished 24 lashes. One of 6 men punished on 8 June

John Fagan - Convict. Assisted the doctor in sick bay

Patrick Finnegan - convict punished on 16 May for uncleanliness; punished on 21 June for making a noise in the night

James Flinn - One of 6 men punished on 8 June

John Flynn punished with 12 lashes for suspicious conduct

Michael Flinn - Punished on 17 June for insolence

John Flood - One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April , 24 lashes

John Fox - convict - On 18 April detained for suspicious conduct. Avoided punishment by bringing a large file up out of the prison

Patrick Ganley - convict punished on 21 June for insolence

John Gill - seaman. Deserted from ship on arrival PJ

Edward Ging - One of 6 men punished on 8 June; punished on 23 June for making a noise in the night

David Goldberry - punished on 21 June for uncleanliness

William Grady - punished with 26 lashes on the back after the mutiny on 18 April

Gray - One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April

John Grinselage - One of 7 convicts punished on 3 June; punished on 17 June for neglect and insolence

Hall - one of three prisoners punished for rattling chains and alarming sentry and attempting to take off their irons

James Hayes - Punished for fighting on 13 June

John Hayes - Punished on 5 June for theft

Thomas Higgins - convict punished on 10 July for making a noise

John Hogan, 46th regt., guard. Sent to England to be tried for murder.

Hoy - One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April . Punished on 5 June for lies

John Hoy - convict punished for insolence on 25th April

William Hughes - convict punished on 19 May with 24 lashes for being suspected of having a chisel in his possession; one of 4 men punished for noise and disputing with others in the prison 9 July

Patrick Hunt - convict punished for insolence to sentry on 6th May

J. Jackson - convict. At the beginning of voyage, appointed by captain to attend the issue of provisions

John Jackson - Convict (one of the ringleaders) ; chained to stauncheons on orlop on suspicion of being one of three principal conspirator on 14th April. One of five men punished on 18th April. Given 36 lashes on his back. Died on 28 May

Edward Jamieson - punished on 10 July for having a pick lock in possession

James Johnston - punished with 21 lashes on the back on 5th May for suspicious conduct

John Jordan, 46th regiment guard. Sent to England to be tried for murder

Kelly - One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April

Barnard Kelly - punished with 36 lashes on the back after the mutiny on 18 April

Bryan Kelly - Convict, brother of Thomas Kelly, mortally wounded in affray on 29th April

Christopher Kelly - Convict punished on 25th April for making water on lower deck

Thomas Kelly - Convict, wounded. On 19 May punished with 48 lashes for attempting to procure a pistol

William Kendrick, seaman. Died on 22 May

Thomas Kenna - punished with 12 lashes on back and 12 on breech on 5th May for suspicious conduct

Kennedy - seaman. Confined in irons 5 June

Kenny - One of four prisoners punished on 28th April

Andrew Kenny - convict punished for uncleanliness 10 May; punished for uncleanliness 21 June

Terence Kiernan - convict. Flogged for having a piece of tin in his berth to break his irons and flogged again for speaking Latin to the doctor who told him "You are a good scholar, but a damned rascal". (In the convict indents there is recorded a John or James Kiernan. He was a teacher from Leitrim and sentenced to 14 years transportation. )

John King - Suspected of another conspiracy. One of 7 convicts punished on 3 June.

Francis Lacey - seaman. On 18 May put in irons and hand cuffs for aiding and assisting prisoners with a view to killing the surgeon and 3rd mate

William Leo - punished with 36 lashes on the back after the mutiny on 18 April; put on deck on his knees with other prisoners before being tied to a rope and thrown astern and towed after the ship for some time, ducked nine or ten times.
William Leo punished for insolence to corporal on 28th April.. Punished 12 lashes on 5th May for suspicious conduct. Frequently punished as well and kept chained to the poop for 14 weeks until they reached NSW.

Michael Leonard - One of 7 convicts punished on 3 June

Pat Leydon - punished on 17 June for making a noise at night

Francis Lucas, seaman. Died of gunshot wouds on 24 May

William Lucas, seaman. Confined on 19 May

Patrick Mahoney - Punished on 17 June for making a noise at night

John Mallen - convict. Died of wounds 26 May

Thomas Mangan - Convict punished on 30 June for disobedience of orders

John Manning - died the morning after the mutiny

Thomas Marlow - convict - punished on 31 May with 36 lashes for cutting main deck in prison

Martin - one of three prisoners punished for rattling chains and alarming sentry and attempting to take off their irons

Daniel McCormick - Convict found dead after the mutiny on 18th April

McDonna - one of three convicts punished on 24th April for muffling their irons in the night.

Michael McDonogh - punished on 13 June for making noise with his chains in the night

John McGennis - convict punished on 12 May for uncleanliness

McGiff - One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April ; punished with 30 lashes after the mutiny on 18 April

Thomas McGiff - convict - punished on 31 May with 36 lashes for cutting main deck in prison

McGrady - one of three convicts punished on 24th April for muffling their irons in the night.

John McKenna - convict punished on 16 May for having a piece of tin in shape of a knife

Patrick McKenna - convict punished with 18 lashes on 2nd May for saying if we don't take the ship in fine weather we will in bad; punished with 12 lashes on the breach on 5th May for being out of bed and rattling their chains

Duncan McLean - Convict, wounded

Lauchlan McLean - accused of being a principal leader in mutiny 17 April; found dead after the mutiny on 18th April

McKean - One of four prisoners punished on 28th April

Patrick McCusker - convict - brought on deck and punished with 24 lashes for having iron, a knife and two files etc. on 29th April

Andrew McMahon convict - punished on 31 May with 24 lashes for cutting main deck in prison. One of 7 convicts punished on 3 June; punished on 13 June for noise and fighting

George McMullen - One of 7 convicts punished on 3 June (for laughing)

McPeake - One of four prisoners punished on 28th April

John Millbank - Chief mate - convicts planning to cut his throat 24 May

William Morrison - accused of being principal leader in mutiny

Thomas Mulholland - died on 22nd April

Francis (Frank) Murphy - Convict (ringleader) ; One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April with 17 lashes ; punished on 2 May with 24 lashes for having an instrument for taking off handcuffs

John Murray - One of five men punished on 18th April. 8 lashes on back.

John Murray - seaman. Died on 18 April.

Andrew Murtagh - convict punished on 16 May for not acknowledging the lever found in his bed. One of 7 convicts punished on 3 June

William Nelson - Seaman. Suspected of being in collusion with convicts. One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April, 24 lashes.

William Ottare - convict confined on 28th March. One of four prisoners punished on 28th April

Daniel Parker - convict died on 26th April

Michael Peters - punished on 17 June for neglect and insolence; punished on 23 June for uncleanliness

Christopher Quinn - One of 6 convicts punished on 8 June

Patrick Riley - Punished for fighting on 13 June

James Revel - punished for theft on 11 June

James Roberts - a wounded convict, died on 24th April

John Rowe - convict punished for making a noise 10 July

William Ruddy - convict - punished on 31 May with 24 lashes for cutting main deck in prison

John Ryan - Convict

John Sandon - Sentry on Cuddy on 24 May

Michael Savage - convict; chained to stauncheons on orlop on suspicion of being one of three principal conspirator on 14th April. One of ten principal conspirators in uprising punished on 18th April, 36 lashes and afterwards imprisoned on the poop deck.

Patrick Sheridan - convict. Punished with 30 lashes after the mutiny

Shield - one of only four convicts who escaped being punished during the voyage

Richard Sinnott - convict - one of 4 men punished for noise and disputing with others in the prison 9 July

Patrick Smith - Convict. Employed as surgeon's mate and slept in the sick bay. one of only four convicts who escaped being punished during the voyage

George Speed - seaman. Deserted from ship on arrival

George Stephenson - found dead after the mutiny on 18 April

Michael Talbert - convict punished for theft on 11 June

Talbot - Convict. Made captain of deck. Informed on other convicts. One of only four convicts who escaped being punished during the voyage

Owen Tonney - punished with 18 lashes for stealing 4 guineas on 15th April.

Thomas Turner - Guard

Richard Vickary - Guard

Oliver Wallace - on 29th Aprildied of wounds received on former occasion

William Walsh - One of 7 men punished on 3 June

Jesse Warburton

Patrick Ward - punished with 12 lashes on the back for suspicious conduct on 5th May

James Wells - ships cook - gave alarm of convict uprising 18th April

William White, landsman, one of the crew, handcuffed at request of the crew for being several times observed to tlk with convicts.

Michael Woods - one of only four convicts who escaped being punished during the voyage



REFERENCES

[1] H.R.A. Series 1, Vol. IX p. 570

[2] ibid, p.591- 599

[3] Wikipedia