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Convict Ship Woodman 1823

Embarked: 97 women
Voyage: 151 days
Deaths 3
Surgeon's Journal: yes
Tons 410
Previous vessel: Brampton arrived 22 April 1823
Next vessel: Recovery arrived 30 July 1823
Captain Henry Ford
Surgeon Superintendent George Fairfowl
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The Woodman was built at Gainsborough in 1808.

She was the next convict ship to leave Ireland after the departure of the Brampton in November 1822 and the next convict ship to bring female prisoners from Ireland after the John Bull in July 1821.


IRELAND

The female prisoners of the Woodman came from counties and cities in Ireland - Dublin, Cork, Antrim, Tipperary, Kilkenny, Waterford, Sligo, Monaghan, Armagh, etc. They were probably held in county gaols prior to being transferred to the Cork depot to await transportation. There were also thirty free women and eight children many of whom were bound for Van Diemen's Land. [4]

In 1822 prison reformer and surgeon Thomas Reid embarked on an extended journey throughout Ireland visiting prisons gaols and convict ships. Towards the end of 1822 he visited the county gaol at Antrim........(Judith Curran, Bridget Dogherty, Mary McIlvee and Mary Stewart were all tried in Antrim in 1821).....

Complete classification and inspection are indispensable in a good gaol; in this prison they are both wanting. Two new wings were added to it in 1820, the cell windows of which are by far too small to admit air and light in sufficient quantity, and the whole is still too small for the number it is necessary to crowd into it. In a day room, twenty feet by thirteen, there were thirty six felons. In a corner of each day room, a boiler is set for cooking: each cell is provided with two beds, and two prisoners sleep in each. There are four cells to which the name "solitary" is given, but without any apparent good reason, for persons there confined can converse freely with those on the opposite side. Inconvenience must arise from the passages to the dormitories being injudiciously situated, directly facilitating communication among prisoners of different classes and sexes. Inconvenience must arise from the passages to the dormitories being injudiciously situated, directly facilitating communication among prisoners of different classes and sexes. A few of the females were spinning linen yarn, but all the males were doomed to idleness. It is gratifying to state that some excellent rules have been framed for the guidance of the prisoners which appear to be carefully enforced. Three humane ladies, Mrs. Hutton, Mrs. Johns, and Miss C. Duncan, perform the praiseworthy task of visiting and instructing the unfortunate females.

....and Armagh....(Mary Clerkand Sarah Mallon were both tried at Armagh).... This edifice is situated at the extremity of the town, and consists of three stories; a considerable addition has been made to it during the last twelve months, by which it has certainly been much improved, but it is still deficient in many essential points; of these, classification and inspection, particularly the latter, are among the most conspicuous. The plan was originally bad, and no alteration can make it good, except taking it down entirely, and re-constructing it, but of this little hope can be at present entertained. There are six yards for the prisoners to exercise in at particular times of the day. In each sleeping cell there are two iron bedsteads , and two prisoners usually sleep in each. There were two women spinning, and another expressed an earnest wish to be furnished with a wheel and flax, that she might be employed also. One of those unfortunate creatures asked for charity, and her manner was more modest, and less importunate than I have been accustomed to notice in females similarly circumstanced. one of them shewed me a letter she had just received from her husband, a convict on board the Mangles lying at Cork, and about to proceed to New South Wales. The letter was signed Arthur McCann; in it he desired his wife "to wait patiently till the end of her sentence, but when she gets out, to be sure not to leave Armagh without committing a crime that will ensure her to be sent after him: I asked this woman whether she intended to follow his advice, to which she replied in the negative, but stated at the same time, she certainly would were it not for two children, from whom she could not think of being separated. Finding that I had been in New South Wales, she inquired eagerly whether her children would be permitted to go with her: I evaded the question, and endeavoured to impress on her mind a correct idea of the deplorable situation of unfortunate females in that country, of which she appeared sensible; but there were several of her companions who appeared very anxious to be sent thither.

Correspondence dated 11 October 1822 from Dr Edward Trevor, Dublin, to Henry Goulburn, Chief Secretary, Dublin Castle reveals Dr Trevor's attitude towards female convicts at the time.....he writes of prisoner Catherine Kirwan, whose ‘conduct was violent in the extreme’ and reflects with near thirty years experience of prison life behind him ‘I never Witnessed so depraved and ill conducted wretches as the generality of the female Convicts now in Kilmainham’. Chief Secretary's Office Registered Papers, National Archives.


SURGEON GEORGE FAIRFOWL

This was George Fairfowl's third voyage as Surgeon Superintendent on a convict ship but his first in taking female prisoners. He kept a Medical Journal from 22 July 1823 - 20 June 1824.


CONVICS EMBARKED

George Fairfowl wrote in his journal - 'On Monday 29 July 1822 I received a warrant from the Navy Board appointing me on board of the female convict ship the Woodman; and forthwith proceeded to Deptford where I placed myself under the orders of Captain Young the Board's Agent. On 24 August 1822 the ship sailed from the River and on the 13 September 1822 we anchored in the Cove of Cork. We remained here until 22 December 1822, when a small miserable schooner, the Mary of London brought us from Dublin 22 free passengers and 47 female convicts. They had suffered severely during the passage of five or six days. The weather was cold and stormy they had no beds the straw they slept on was scanty and wet and they were badly clothed.

On 23 December 1822 the Woodman received from Cork Depot, 24 free women and children and 43 female convicts. We were now detained, waiting for the necessary papers from the Secretary of State's Office, until 25 January 1823 when we finally sailed. During this time some changes had taken place, the accommodations were not sufficient for the passengers and consequently eight were landed under the sanction of the Naval Commander in Chief Lord Colville who personally inspected the prison and we sailed with three convicts short of the complement.



DEPARTURE

The Recovery and Earl St. Vincent were taking in prisoners in the Cove of Cork bound for New South Wales when the Woodman departed Cork on 25 January 1823.



THE VOYAGE

There were at least four births during the voyage of the Woodman, the first just ten days before they sailed. - Margaret Burke, aged 25, gave birth on 14th January and Catherine Nocton gave birth on 19th April. The first death was that of Mary Lusk aged 18 who died on 7th February after days of sea sickness. Margaret Doolan aged 34 came on board from Kilmainham hospital in a state of filth, having spent five days in the hold of a schooner without bed or clothing, she laboured under violent menorrhagia attended by hysterical and dyspeptic symptoms and died 6 May 1823. Eleanor Carroll also died on the passage out.


RIO DE JANEIRO

The Woodman put into Rio de Janeiro for water on the 20th March, and was detained there for three weeks, in consequence of an expedition then fitting out against Bahia, under Lord Cochrane, who was appointed High Admiral of the Brazils.


PORT JACKSON

The Woodman arrived in Port Jackson on 25 June 1823 with 94 female prisoners who were landed on 28th June. Prisoner Grace Keenan was sent to the hospital at Sydney as she was not well enough to go with the other women to the Female Factory at Parramatta. The other women according to George Fairfowl were all landed in a high state of health, their looks much improved by the voyage.


CONVICTS OF THE WOODMAN

George Fairfowl thought that the predominant illnesses on the voyage were pulmonary inflammation, dysentery and female complaints, which he attributed, the two former to the rapid change from the meagre diet of the jail to the high stimulating one of the ship, and the sudden transition of the climate. The female complaints were accounted for by the fact that four-fifths of the women had lived in a state of prostitution from their early youth. Below is a list of the women treated by George Fairfowl. His journal is interesting for the comments he makes about his charges and some of the 'cures' they endured.

His description of Ellen Carroll who died on the voyage is particularly detailed.....

Scruphulous habit marked strongly by slender neck narrow chest slight emaciated figure, pearly white skin full of clear blue veins; pouting upper lip and delicate carmine coloured cheeks. Her temper is bad, her passions furious and uncontrollable. She appears to have no sense of moral or religious duties and never to have been taught them. Her language when provoked is blasphemous and obscene. Came on board from hospital at the depot in Cork in a very delicate state of health which she attempted to conceal being anxious to go on the voyage. The strongly marked characteristic traits of the scrofulous diathesis induced me to keep a watchful eye upon her and day after day I inquired into the state of her health to which she answered that she had been very ill at the hospital but had then no complaint. The weather was most inclement being the coldest winter that had been experienced in Ireland for many years and she was badly clothed. She soon showed signs of illness and I would have returned her to the depot except that she begged so anxiously that he would not. I learned that she had been a prostitute from the early age of fourteen, had been often in hospital and been subjected to frequent and long continued courses of mercury. I had her immediately removed to a good berth in the hospital, enveloped her in flannel and gave her additional bed clothes to make her comfortable. Seriously ill but recovered. 29th April. On 7th May - night was passed in a comatose sleep. Hectic blush beautifully painted on her cheeks


Mary Downie treated 22nd December 1822 at Cork Harbour. Short stature and sallow complexion. Led a dissolute life. Sudden stop of catamenia on the way from Dublin.

Bridget Dougherty treated 22 December 1822 at Cork Harbour. Married. Violent hysterics from pain in her pelvis and back; she had also a sudden stop of menses on the passage from Dublin.

Catherine Marrum treated 28 December 1822 at Cork Harbour Ill. Returned to Cork Depot 8th January

Mary Sullivan treated 7 January 1823 at Cork Harbour. Unmarried. Short stature inclined to obesity

Joanna Lane treated 13th January 1823 at Cork Harbour. Robust woman. 6 ft in height; sanguinous temperament; subject to fits.

Eliza Barry treated 17th January 1823 at Cork Harbour. Unmarried but in the 5th month of pregnancy. Full habit; sanguinous temperament.

Margaret Burke treated 14th January 1823 at Cork Harbour. Robust woman. Gave birth to a premature child.

Judith Hogan treated 23rd January 1823 at Cork Harbour

Eliza Murphy treated 27th January 1823. Of full habit

Catherine Kerwin treated 30th January at sea. Married. Safely delivery of a male child

Mary Lusk Unmarried. Denied being pregnant when questioned by the surgeon. Miscarried at six months

Esther Corcoran treated 5th February. At sea. Of spare habit

Honora Kirby treated 10th February. At sea. Of full habit

Catherine Sweeney treated 12th February at sea. Pneumonia

Mary Kennelly treated 13th February at sea. Sea sickness/ dysentery

Rose Fullard treated 15th February at sea. Free passenger. Sea sickness/dysentery

Celia Cosgreave treated 15th February. at sea. Free passenger. Seasickness/dysentery

Ann Brennan treated 14th February. At sea

Eliza Whelan treated 16th February at sea. Has led a regular life

Ann McDermott treated 24th February at sea. Unmarried. Of full habit

Bridget Devanny treated 2nd March at sea. Pneumonia

Ellen Carbery treated 2nd March. At sea Pneumonia

Eliza Steward treated 7th March at sea. Pneumonia

Ellen Bateman treated 7th March at sea. Pneumonia

Joanna Keefe treated 10th March at sea. Pneumonia

Catherine Moore treated 14th March. At sea Pneumonia

Mary McIlvie treated 15th March. At sea. Pneumonia

Mary Delahunt treated 19th March. At sea Pneumonia

Catherine Long treated 2nd March at sea Spare habit. Has led a vicious life.

Mary Ann Kirwin treated 26th March. At sea

Bridget Rourke treated 6th March. At sea Of full habit

Catherine McLoughlin Leucophlegmatic appearance

Harriett Gordon treated 24th March at sea Spare habit; scrofulous; has led a vicious life

Bridget Foley treated 24th March. At sea

Ellen Sherlock treated 28th March at sea. Sanguinous temperament; corpulent; led an irregular life. Fainted. Hysteric fits at night. George Fairfowl...plunged a lancet into the temporal artery and took away fourteen ounces of blood which flowed at first with great force shooting two yards from the orifice, the strength of the jet gradually abated until it stopped.

Mary Read treated 30th March at sea. Of robust habit. Unmarried

Ellen Bateman treated 7th April at sea. Fainted twice during the night from the heat of the prison

Ann Dalton treated 16th April. At sea

Catherine Nocton treated 17th April at sea. Safely delivered of a female child....it was a footling case. The father of her child is an under turnkey at Cork depot

Bridget Burke treated 20th April. At sea

Ellen Carrol treated 21st April at seaDied

Honora Sullivan treated 25th April. At sea

Mary Mahoney treated 28th April. At sea

Mary Byrne treated 2nd May. At sea

Mary Burke treated 2nd May. At sea. Scrophulous; several glandular swellings in her neck

Ann Brennan treated 6th May. At sea. Led a dissolute life

Margaret Doolan treated 6th May. At sea. Died

Mary Stuart treated 7th May. At sea. Accustomed to hard work all her life

Bridget Burke treated 10th May at sea. Full habit

Catherine Connors treated 11 May at sea. Removal of calculi using forceps

Margaret Larkins treated 11 May. At sea

Winifred Lea treated 11 May. At sea

Eliza Barry treated 11 May at sea. Very full habit. Florid complexion. In the last stage of pregnancy. Was called to her in the night. She was frightened into a hysteric fit by the wind and the noise of the fore yard which was carried away.

Mary Ann Thornton treated 12th May. At sea. Passenger

Mary Garraghan treated 16th May at sea. Robust habit

Ann Walsh treated 16th May at sea. Sanguine temperament. Robust

Ellen Whelan treated 19th May. At sea

Catherine Brown treated 20th May. At sea Muscular habit

Judith Aherne treated 24th May. At sea Married with an infant at the breast

Margaret Larkins treated 26th May. At sea

Ann Brennan treated 27th May. At sea

Mrs. Healy treated 4th June. At sea Free passenger

Bridget Burke (2) treated 10th June. At sea Age 33. Full habit

Grace Keenan treated 27th June. Sydney Cove. Sent to the hospital in Sydney on 28th June.

George Fairfowl later interceded on behalf of a poor immigrant woman Ann Fullard who was on her way to Van Diemen's Land. Her chest containing clothing had been broken into and robbed on the voyage by one of the seamen. When the captain refused to remunerate for the losses, George Fairfowl applied to the Governor on her behalf. (Colonial Secretary's Letters). This was just one of the disputes between George Fairfowl and Henry Ford, the others included:

1. Captain Ford's general inattention to requests for assistance and to the health comfort and safety of the women
2. Excluding the free passengers from the quarter deck reducing them to the alternative of ruining the morals of their children by mixing them all day with the mass of convicts on the main deck or remaining below in their close rooms which were very hot.:
3. Running upwards of six hundred miles direction out of his course to put into Rio de Janeiro in defiance of the surgeon's wishes.
4. Carelessness with the public stores and provisions As the correspondence below shows there was great animosity between the two men which continued for the entire voyage.

Sir Thomas Brisbane to Earl Bathurst.
Government House,
Sydney, New South Wales, My Lord,
6th November, 1823.
On the arrival of the Woodman with female Convicts the inquiry into Surgeon Superintendent Mr. Fairfowl pressed the necessity of an master of enquiry into some unpleasant circumstances, which had occurred on board that Vessel during her passage to this port. Accordingly I directed a board to be assembled composed of three Gentlemen who had themselves severally filled the situations of Surgeon Superintendent, Officer of the Guard and Chief Mate of a Convict Vessel. Their proceedings having ended on the first day of their assembly in consequence of the Master of the Woodman quitting the room abruptly, the duties left for me to perform were only two, to refuse to insert into his certificate the clause expressing my approbation of his conduct, and to forward herewith to Your Lordship the only documents relating to this difference which have come into possession.
I have, &c, Thos. Brisbane.

Surgeon Fairfowl to Sir Thomas Brisbane.
Convict Transport the Woodman,
Sydney, 25th June, 1823.
Sir
I have the honor to report the Arrival of the Ship Woodman, 419 tons, with Ninety four female Convicts and thirty eight Women and Children free passengers. The Woodman received her Convicts and Passengers at Cork on the 22nd day of December last, but did not sail until the 25th of January. Many of the Convicts were sickly at the time of Embarkation, several came direct from Hospitals, and before they had been a week on board the sick list exceeded thirty, consisting principally of female complaints. A very limited selection only was allowed me there being no Convicts in the jails to replace those whom I might reject; as it was, we sailed three short of our complement which was 100.  At Sea the sick list did not for some time decrease in number, and we lost one Woman within the first fortnight by abortion caused by Sea Sickness. As we approached the Equator, the heat of the Prison, which by a register thermometer ranged during the night from 83 to 91, reduced many to a very dangerous state, and for a long time I was seriously apprehensive of a great mortality, aware also that even the healthy female system could not long with safety be exposed to so high a temperature in a close atmosphere; I became anxious to get through the tropics as quickly as possible, and therefore wrote several pressing letters to the Master of the Ship, stating my reasons in the strongest manner for desiring him to proceed for Water to the Cape of Good Hope, and not to Rio de Janeiro. My representations were treated with contempt and defiance of them, in utter disregard of the health, the comforts, even the lives of the Women under his charge, which I had represented as in danger; he, without condescending to give one efficient reason for so doing, put into the latter port, where we were detained three weeks by the slow mode of watering and by an embargo laid on all shipping, in consequence of Lord Cochrane having taken the Command of a Brazilian Squadron which sailed to attack Bahia de todos as Santor. We sailed from Rio on the 8th of April, since which we have buried two Women. The sick list decreased after we got to the Southward of the tropic, and we continued healthy until within the last three weeks when we had some serious cases of Dysentery caused by the cold damp state of the prison from numerous leaks, &c. I have however the pleasure to report that they are all in a fair way of doing well though some are much reduced. In compliance with my Instructions, I have done every thing in my power to prevent illicit intercourse between the Sailors and the Women. I regret to have to add that I have not met with that support and assistance from the Master, which I had a right to expect, and that he has given me many reasons to be dissatisfied with his conduct. I have, &c, Geo. Fairfowl, Surgeon and Superintendent.  

Evidence tendered by master.
Mr. Henry Ford to Sir Thomas Brisbane.
Sir,
The inclosed is from Mr. George Naylor of Rio de Janeiro; the contents I believe are to recommend me to Your Excellency's protection in case Mr. Fairfowl, Surgeon and Superintendent of this Ship, should (as he has threaten'd) take measures to injure me and stop the Ship's Freight. I beg Your Excellency will be kind enough to suspend your opinion (when Mr. Fairfowl may think proper to bring his charges against me) until Your Excellency has heard both sides of the Question. I have, &c., Henry Ford, Master of the Female Convict Ship Woodman.

Mr. George Naylor to Sir Thomas Brisbane
Rio de Janeiro, 5th April, 1823.
Sir,
Having had the honor of some acquaintance with Your Excellency when you touched at this port in 1821, I take the liberty of addressing you on the present occasion. The Woodman female Convict Ship, Commanded by Mr. Henry Ford, having come in here, and being consigned to the House in which I am associated, the Master informed me that the Surgeon Superintendent, Mr. George Fairfowl, had threatened to complain of him to the Navy Board for putting into this port instead of into the Cape of Good Hope, and to make other charges against him, partly arising from a private quarrel between them. Mr. Ford wished very much to have their dispute accommodated and I took some pains to effect this, but found Mr. Fairfowl deaf to any arrangement short of a public apology before the Officers and Crew of the Ship and the whole of the free Passengers and Convicts; and feeling persuaded that the circumstances did not warrant such concession, but that, on the contrary, much of Mr. Fairfowl's hostility was without just motives, and that he had been on bad terms with the Masters of other Vessels, in which he had filled the same capacity as he does in the Woodman, I advised Mr. Ford to make application to Mr. Chamberlain, the British Consul General, for an enquiry into his (the Master's) conduct, which was done by Mr. Heatherly, the Vice- Consul, going on board and taking the Depositions of several of the Officers and of the free passengers, all tending to invalidate the charges of Mr. Fairfowl; the Vice-Consul was directed by the Consul General to ask Mr. Fairfowl if he wished any person on board to be examined respecting the Master's conduct, and received for answer that he (Mr. Fairfowl) considered "himself both Judge and Jury," and therefore should not call any one. I have troubled Your Excellency with this detail, because I have known Mr. Ford for some years, as a good Officer on board different Vessels, and as he has, from his meritorious conduct, just got this Ship, I am anxious that he should have fair play, which I insure to him by placing the real state of the business before Your Excellency, as he informs me that the Surgeons can refuse to sign the Certificates for the recovery of the Freight, which of course would injure him in the opinion of his owners, and might cause him to lose his Command. We continue in the same state of Warfare that has existed for the last fourteen Months, and as we have now the assistance of Lord Cochrane, who sailed a few days ago as High Admiral of the Brazilian Navy, to act against the Portugueze Squadron in Bahia in which place some Portugueze Troops still maintain themselves, we expect that Brazil will soon be free from European Soldiers. I request that Your Excellency will give my respectful compliments to the Ladies, and that you will pardon this intrusion on your time and patience.
I have, &c,
George Naylor.

Board of Inquiry to Secretary Goulburn.
General Hospital, Sydney,
14th August, 1823.
Sir,
Having assembled, in obedience to the orders of His Excellency the Governor dated 8th Instant, for the purpose of inquiring into the circumstances which occur'd between Mr. Fairfowl, late Surgeon and Superintendent of the Woodman Convict Ship, and Mr. Ford, Master of the said Ship, on the passage to this Colony, The Board proceeded to hear Mr. Fairfowl's statement of the occurrences which took place from Ireland to Rio de Janeiro, when Mr. Ford, from motives which he declined to explain, protested against the proceedings of the Board and abruptly left the room. Waiting the further instructions of His Excellency, We have, &c, J. Bowman, Jno. Nicholson , Members
. ...
Extracts from HRA, Series 1, Vol. XI, p. 152


DEPARTURE

The Woodman was preparing to depart the colony for Calcutta in August 1823. Those departing on her included the Chief Officer Mr. Lery; Captain Pickersgill of the Bengal Army and his servant Louis Decruz and Matthew Harris, servant to Mr. Youngs.

George Fairfowl returned to England on the Competitor with surgeons John Rodmell and Peter Cunningham.  


NOTES AND LINKS

1). Convicts and passengers of the Woodman identified in the Hunter Valley

2). Mary Ann Lane, daughter of Johanna Lane arrived free on the Woodman

3). Elizabeth Whaling came as a free passenger on the Woodman. She married Charles Cridland

4). The following convictions were noted in the Freeman's Journal 23 April 1822.
All three women were embarked on the Woodman under sentence of 7 years transportation......
Convictions and Sentences in the City Court, Cork at the late Assizes: Catherine Long for stealing a piece of linen from Henry Morrogh
Catherine Kelly for stealing eleven shawls from William Craig
Mary Callaghan or Broderick for stealing two Bank of Ireland notes of 50l each and two other Bank of Ireland notes for 20l each and 4l 11s 8d in cash the property of Ellen Mahony.  

5). The following are notes from the Colonial Secretary's Index:
Thomas McGowan, seaman of the Woodman requested permission to discharge from the vessel as he intended to join the colonial service
Bridget Courtney alias Neville's husband John Meehan arrived on the Southworth in 1822
Eliza Courtney requested permission to marry in 1823.
Catherine Foley alias Catherine Connor wife of Patrick Foley. First husband Denis Neilan arrived on the Prince Regent.
Catherine Kirwin or Kearnan or Keenan requested location of assignment of her brother Patrick Keenan who arrived on the Brampton in 1823
Mary Foley application to marry James Lally in 1825

6). Elizabeth Fannin (Duffy) was married to Patrick Fannin who arrived on the Recovery. Mrs. Ann Jacob of Newcastle made the following application on behalf of Elizabeth in 1825.....

Elizabeth Fannin alias Duffy arrived a prisoner on the Woodman on the 25th June 1823 where on application to the Surgeon Superintendent Dr. Fairfowl she was particularly recommended to Mrs. Jacob with the expressions of the most lively interest in the woman's fate after her inestimable conduct on board the ship in character of nurse to the sick. Application was made at the Colonial Secretary's Office and to Dr. Douglass for an assignment which was accordingly made and her Mistress feels under a female obligation to this warm hearted woman for her incomparable conduct on the melancholy occasion of the fatal illness of her (Mrs Jacob's) only surviving boy.

Patrick Fanning, prisoner, husband of Elizabeth arrived on the ship Recovery on 31 July 1823 when on application he was assigned to Mr. Reid and since that period has conducted himself well. The woman is an excellent laundress and would no doubt make a handsome stipend as a nurse in addition to her washing and it is Mrs. Jacob s most anxious desire to testify her appreciation of this poor woman s services by indulging her anxious wish to apply for a ticket of leave for her and her husband. Nonconformity with the Rule which the indulgence comes under. Mrs. Jacob is diffident in intending with a formal application and submitting the case therefore thus begs Major Goulburn s considerate announcement whether such could be listened to in behalf of these poor people Elizabeth and Patrick Fannin. Mr. Reid fully acquiesces for the application. Mr. Jacob
  (Colonial Secretary's Correspoindence Fiche 3248; 4/1874 p.113)

7). George Fairfowl was also Surgeon on the convict ships Ocean in 1818, Dromedary in 1820, Woodman in 1823, Royal Charlotte in 1825, Asia 1827 (VDL) Sovereign in 1829, Andromeda in 1830, Clyde in 1832 and the Hive in 1834..

8). The Woodman was one of three convict ships bringing female prisoners to New South Wales in 1823, the others being the Lord Sidmouth and the Mary. A total of 199 female convicts arrived in the colony in 1823.    



REFERENCES

[1] National Archives. Reference: ADM 101/75/6 Description: Medical journal of the Woodman, female convict ship from 29 July 1822 to 20 June 1824 by George Fairfowl, surgeon and superintendent, during which time the ship transported female convicts and passenger to New South Wales.

[2] Bateson, Charles & Library of Australian History (1983). The convict ships, 1787-1868 (Australian ed). Library of Australian History, Sydney : pp.344-345, 384

[3] Ancestry.com. UK, Royal Navy Medical Journals, 1817-1857. Medical Journal of George Fairfowl on the voyage of the Woodman in 1823. The National Archives. Kew, Richmond, Surrey.

[4] Sydney Gazette 3 July 1823