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Hunter Valley Indigenous Notes and Links

Indigenous Names & Events - A collection of indigenous information including names, events and customs of tribes in the Hunter Valley, Lake Macquarie and Central Coast districts of New South Wales.

Hunter Valley Place Names - Notes on the origins and locations of Hunter Valley place names including many aboriginal place names.

John Bingle's excursion to Lake Macquarie in 1821.

An account of  Missionary Rev. Lancelot Threlkeld's first few months in Newcastle in 1825 in which he provides descriptions of the native tribe and their customs

United States Exploring Expedition to Lake Macquarie in 1839 with mention of indigenous guides.

Biraban and John Mander Gill

Reminiscences of Aboriginal Customs Hunter and Paterson Rivers

Robert Dawson's Arrival in Australia & Travels North from Port Stephens 1826

Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell's description of the remnants of the aboriginal tribe of Brisbane Water in 1831.

John Howe's Expedition in 1819

Murder at the Hunter in 1808

Barbarisms - From The Australian Language as spoken by the Awabakal people of Lake Macquarie - Rev. Lancelot Threlkeld.........

Certain Barbarisms have crept into use introduced by sailors, stockmen and others who have paid no attention to the aboriginal tongue, in the use of which both blacks and whites labour under the mistaken idea that each one is conversing in the other's language. The following list contains the most common:

Barbarism Meaning Aboriginal
Boojery good murrorong
Bail no keawai
Bogy to bathe nurongkilliko
Bimble Earth Purrai
Boomiring a weapon turrama
Budgel sickness munni
Cudgel tobacco kuttul (smoke)
Gammon falsehood nakoiyaye
Gibber a stone tunung
Gummy a spear warre
Goonyer hut kokere
Hillimung a shield koreil
Jin a wif porikunbai
Jerrund fear kinta
Kangaroo an animal karai
Carbon large Kanwul
Mije little mitti; warea
Mogo axe baibai
Murry many muraiai
Pickaninney child wounai
Piyaller to speak wiyelliko
Tuggererrer cold takara
Wikky bread kunto
Waddy a cudgel Kotirra
Wommerrer a weapon yakirri


An Australian Language as spoken by the Awabakal, the people of Awaba, Lake Macquarie, being an account of their language, traditions and customs - Lancelot Threlkeld

Rev. Threlkeld's Report on the Aborigines in 1836 - Sydney Gazette 16 July 1836

Notes on the Aborigines of New South Wales - R.H. Matthews

Hunter Valley Aboriginal Arts and Culture -  Wollombi

Heritage listing for NSW Aboriginal cave - Australian Geographic

Weaving program connects students with Indigenous culture in Hunter Valley schools - ABC News 2017

Mixed-race unions and Indigenous demography in the Hunter Valley of New South Wales, 1788-1850  - Greg Blyton and John Ramsland

Koori History - Traditional Aboriginal Clothing - The oldest known cloak is the Hunter Valley cloak, which forms part of the collections held at the Smithsonian Institute, in Washington D.C. The cloak was collected in 1839-1840, is made of both possum and kangaroo skin and measures 146 by 125cm.

Australian Dress Register - Aboriginal cloak

New England's History Discussions on the history and historiography of Australia's New England Hunter Valley Aboriginal Groups

Aborigines of the Hunter Valley - A Study of Colonial Records - Helen Brayshaw - University of Newcastle

The Percy Haslem Collection - University of Necastle

Deep Time Project - University of Newcastle

Aboriginal History of the Paterson district

Scraps of Early History - The Blacks - Vocabularly of the Williams River Aborigines - Dungog Chronicle 12 January 1906

P.P. King's Report re the employment of natives by the A.A. Company 1841

24 November 1830.......   Death of Boongarie (Bungaree), chief of the Broken Bay and Sydney tribes. Interred at Rose Bay on Friday 26th November 1830.

A portrait painted in 1819 by naval officer Phillip Parker King, son of Governor Philip Gidley King P P King: Album of sketches and engravings. f48. PXC 767. Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales.)