In January 1831 the Sydney Gazette reported: We are happy to inform our readers that the Caroline, a fine vessel of 350 tons has been purchased at Calcutta by Mr Betts, for the express purpose of coming with a full cargo of goods and passengers to Hobart Town, and to be enrolled as a vessel belonging to the port, in order to be devoted exclusively to the sperm whale fishery
arrived in Sydney from Madras and Calcutta on 31st July 1831 with general merchandise and 21 Oriental transgressors
(male convicts) under charge of Captain Betts and 10 Sepoy soldiers. The female convict ship the Palambam
from Ireland arrived in Sydney on the same day.
Passengers included Captain and Mrs. Betts, 3 children and 1 servant; Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Betts, 2 children and servants; Colonel Parker with the two Misses Parker; Capt. Weston and Mrs. Weston and children; Dr. and Mrs. Kenny; Mr. Still; Mr Grey; Captain Swanson; Capt. Maxwell; Lieut. Onslow; Sergeant Major Dobson wife with 4 children; Mr. and Mrs. Flood (this may have Alexander Flood
who was employed by Robert and Helenus Scott
at Glendon in 1833 and later lived for many years in Newcastle where he was employed as postmaster)
The Sydney Gazette reported that the military gentlemen who arrived on the Caroline
came for the benefit of their health.......
We trust they will be so charmed with our salubrious climate and cheering prospects, as not only to cast in their own lot with us, but to recommend their Indian brethren to choose Australia as their future asylum
Many of the convicts of the Caroline were soldiers who had been born in Ireland and some from England. They were convicted in Madras, Calcutta and Bombay of crimes such as desertion, highway robbery, forgery, murder, assaulting their serjeant and robbery.  The Sydney Gazette later reported that one of them had the command of a large vessel in the East India Company service. 
They were landed on 9th August 1831 and assigned to settlers such as William Lawson, Hamilton C. Sempill, Thomas Rose, Richard Brooks and William Howe. Select here
to find out more about convicts disembarking in Sydney.
NOTES AND LINKS
1). Michael Collins
who gave his occupation as actor and solider, was convicted of bushranging at Invermein in 1835. He was sent to Norfolk Island.
2). Hunter Valley convicts / passengers arriving on the Caroline in 1831.
 Sydney Gazette 9 August 1831
 Ancestry.com. Bound manuscript indents, 1788–1842. NRS 12188, microfiche 614–619,626–657, 660–695. State Records Authority of New South Wales, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.