Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

Newcastle History - Links

Adamstown History - The suburb of Adamstown was established in 1869 between the Borehole and New Lambton

Ahern, Owen - Reminiscences - William Ahern was a member of the Newcastle Customs and of the Life Boat crew for much of his career. In an article published in the Newcastle Morning Herald in the 1860s, Owen Ahern reminisces about the Newcastle of his boyhood

A Last Farewell - The first A.N.Z.A.C. Day was commemorated at Newcastle on 25th April 1916 and was attended by thousands of people

Allman, Francis - Captain Francis Allman of the 48th regiment was appointed commandant at Newcastle in 1824

Armstrong, Garrett - Garrett Armstrong arrived on the Recovery as a soldier of the New South Wales Corps in 1808. He became a notorious bushranger

Atkinson, William - arrived on the convict ship Guildford in 1827. Took to bushranging and sent to Norfolk Island in 1840

Australia's Strongest Sports Centre - In 1947 the Daily Telegraph produced a souvenir supplement to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the founding of Newcastle. This article mentions many of Newcastle's sporting heroes of the day

Australian Agricultural Company - The Company was incorporated in 1824. With a capital of one million pounds, an agreement with the British Government was undertaken that a million acres of land in NSW would be alienated to the Company

Australian Agricultural Company Mine at Newcastle -The first Australian Agricultural Company mine at Newcastle was opened in 1831

Australian Agricultural Company miners - a list of some of the Australian Agricultural Company employees and servants in Newcastle

Bank of Newcastle - First Provincial Bank established in the Colony

Barrallier, Ensign Francis Louis - engineer and explorer. In July 1801 he accompanied the expedition to the Coal River (Newcastle) where he surveyed the harbour.

Barton, Lady Jane, Jane (Jeannie) Mason Ross, born in London on 11 June 1851, and later the wife of Australia's first Prime Minister Sir Edmund Barton, spent most of her girlhood in Newcastle

Beacher, Richard - arrived as a convict on the Burrell in 1830. He became a well-known pilot in the harbour of Newcastle

Beattie, Francis - arrived as a convict on the Indian in 1810. Later became one of the early innkeepers at Newcastle

Bells played an important part in the lives of our ancestors

Biddulph, Commander Edward - a former Royal Navy Lieutenant who brought the makings of Sophia Jane, the first steamer to Australia from England

Binder, Richard - early settler in the lower Hunter and Innkeeper at Newcastle

Bingle, John arrived as second officer on the convict ship Minerva

Blaxland, Gregory opened the first salt works at Newcastle. Find the location here

Botany Bay Hero, Michael Keane arrived on the Seaflower in 1820

Bowker, Richard Ryther Steer - well-known Newcastle medical pracitioner

Brady, Thomas - Irish rebel, arrived on the Minerva in 1800

Brooks, George - early colonial surgeon at Newcastle. Served until 1847

Brown, Robert - botanist who accompanied Matthew Flinders' expedition to Australia and in 1804 collected specimens at the Hunter River

Buildings at Newcastle - a list from Historical Records of Australia

Bull, John Edward Newell - Superintendent of the breakwater 1840s and 1850s

Bushrangers near Newcastle escape from Nobbys stockade in 1842

Cabbage Tree Hats - once a part of everyday colonial life

Caley, George - Botanist. Under Sir Joseph Banks' patronage Caley departed England on the Speedy bound for Australia in November 1799. He accompanied the Expedition to Hunter River in 1801

Castle Hill Rebellion - An attempt by Irish convicts to overthrow British rule in New South Wales and return to Ireland where they could continue to fight for an Irish republic.

Convicts from the Castle Hill Rebellion - Convicts from the Castle Hill Rebellion were among prisoners sent to the Second Settlement at Coal River in 1804

Cedar Getters - Correspondence from Lieut. Menzies re the difficulties of procuring cedar

Christie, Colin - Reminiscences of Newcastle in the 1850's by former Mayor Colin Christie

City Baths - In 1880 the City Baths were located at Newcomen-street, Newcastle

Close, Lieutenant Edward - Officer of the 48th regiment - employed as engineer of Public Works at Newcastle in 1821. Later a settler at Morpeth

Coal Fire Beacon, built when Lieut. Close was employed as Engineer at Newcastle

Coal Mines at Newcastle in 1858 by Henry T. Plews

Colliers Point and the First Settlement at Newcastle

Convict Assignment and Punishment at Newcastle in 1813 - Government Orders

Convict Pirates - description of their fate at the hand of natives near Newcastle

Convicts at Newcastle in 1822 - Newspaper extracts

Convict barracks at the penal settlement

Coombes, John James - Convict Ship Captain and later wharfinger at Newcastle

Cottage Creek History

County Electors residing in Newcastle in 1855

The Old Court-house at Newcastle 1841 - 1900

Craig, William Harrison - Convict artist, arrived on the Guildford in 1812.

Cramp, W. B. - A Description of Newcastle Aboriginal people - By traveller W.B. Cramp

William Cromarty- harbour pilot

Crossley, George - Arrived on the Hillsborough in 1799.

Crummer, James Henry - Magistrate at Newcastle 1837 - 1849

Crump, Thomas - Boat builder. Arrived on the Surprize in 1794

Cumberland at Newcastle - reported to have been the largest vessel to ever have entered Newcastle Port in 1830

Custom House Time-ball completed

Dangar, Henry surveyed the streets of Newcastle in 1822 - 1823

A description of Newcastle and Maitland in 1826

Darby, George Elde, Surveyor and Headmaster

Davies, James Charles - Reminiscences of Newcastle in the 1860s

Death of Private Connachton 1817

Desmond, Thomas - bushranger at Newcastle in 1804

de Santo, Fortisco - boatbuilder in 1820

Discovery of Coal by escaping convicts William and Mary Bryant in 1791

Discovery of Lake Macquarie in 1800

Dixon, Frederick - arrived free on the Larkins in 1817. Sent to Newcastle in 1820 for a colonial crime where he became Clerk to the Commandant and Principal Superintendent of Convicts and public works and later a publican

Draffen, Ensign - Instructions to Ensign Draffen in 1805

Durack, Fanny - Olympic Champion at Newcastle Ocean Baths 1915

Early Convict Coal Miners - 1802

Eckford, William - arrived free on the Earl Cornwallis in 1801. Sent to Newcastle for a colonial crime where he became a harbour pilot

Evans, William - arrived on the Experiment in 1809. Appointed assistant surgeon in 1810

Executions at Newcastle, Maitland and the Hunter Valley in 1830s and 1840s

Expedition to the Hunter River on the Lady Nelson in 1801

Explosion at Newcastle - children killed, 1826

Farrell, Roger - Correspondence re injustices he had suffered at Newcastle

Female Factory at Newcastle

Fenton, Abraham - appointed Assistant Surgeon at Newcastle in 1820

Field, John - employed as gaoler at Newcastle Gaol

Fisk, Arnold - harbour master and pilot in 1828

Fitzgerald, John - bushranger at Newcastle in 1806

Fleming, Robert - Reminiscences of Albert Hudson and Robert Fleming in 1850s

Fleming Brothers Reunion sons of Peter Fleming re-unite at Newcastle in 1923

Flood, Alexander - innkeeper at the Caledonia Hotel

Forrester, Long Tom - Bushranger. Executed at Newcastle in 1843

Frank the Poet arrived on the Eliza convict ship in 1832. He became one of Australia's best known poets

Furlong, Richard Tasker, Engineer and Superintendent at No. 3 Stockade

Gamack, Alexander - Medical Practitioner and Surgeon at Newcastle

Gillman, Henry - Commandant at Newcastle in 1823

Gilmour, Hugh - Reminiscences of Newcastle 1850s

Gore, William - convict at Newcastle in 1808

Government Rules - established at Newcastle in 1807 to prevent prisoners having any contact with the outside world

Governor Macquarie's Notice re free pardons in 1810

Governor Macquarie's Tour of Inspectionin 1811

Governor Macquarie's Visit to Newcastle in 1818

Governor Bourke to Newcastle in 1833

Governor Bourke to Newcastle in 1836

Governor Gipps' Visit to Newcastle in 1844

Grant, Lieutenant James - Commander of the Lady Nelson

Harbour Lights - leading lights at Newcastle

Harris, John, surgeon. Joined the expedition to the Hunter River in 1801

Harris, Dr. May - Newcastle's first female medical practitioner qualified in 1895

Hayes, Sir Henry Browne - convict at Newcastle in 1808

Hemsworth Huntington's History of Newcastle

Heritage Buildings and Interesting Locations in Newcastle

Hewson, John Butler - constable and innkeeper

Horse Patrols and the Mounted Police - 1825-26

Hudson, Albert - Reminiscences of Albert Hudson and Robert Fleming - Newcastle in 1850s

Hughes, Charles - assistant-pilot at Newcastle and later innkeeper

Hunter River Discovered 1797

Hunter River Tragedy - 1815

Hunter River Steamers

Hunter-street Church - Ceremony for the laying of the Foundation stone

Jackson, George - harbour master and pilot

Journal of a Voyage from Sydney to Newcastle and Maitland in 1844 - by David Burn

The brig Kangaroo arrived at Newcastle in 1816

Last, Edward - assistant engineer at Newcastle Stockade in 1844

Launch of the Francis in 1793

Lawson, Lieut. William - temporary Commandant in 1805

Lawson, Lieutenant William - Commandant in 1808

Lawson, Lieutenant William - Correspondence re state of the settlement

Lime Burners Gang near Newcastle

Livingstone, Alexander arrived as chief officer on the Jessie in 1821

Lycett, Joseph - Convict artist

Mackay, Duncan Forbes - Superintendent of Public Works at Newcastle in 1826

McClymont, James and Nancy - innkeepers at the Ship Inn

McGreavy, James - innkeeper at the Victoria Inn

Meikle, James - Early Australian Experiences

Menzies, Lieutenant Charles - Royal Marine. Commandant at Newcastle 1804

Middleton, Rev. George Augustus - appointed to Newcastle 1821

Mileham James, surgeon - accompanied the expedition to Newcastle in 1804

Military Barracks at Newcastle

Miner at Newcastle - refusal to work in 1838

Miners' Arms

Morgan, Cosby William - Honorary Medical Office - Newcastle Hospital

Morisset, Major James Thomas, Commandant

Newcastle Penal Settlement - Under command of Lieut. John Purcell of 73rd Regiment

Newcastle Port Regulations - 1815

Newcastle Gaol - constructed in 1816-18

Newcastle Penal Settlement - in 1810

Newcastle in 1820 - Newspaper Extracts - Death of Burrigan in October

Newcastle in 1824 - Newcastle Extracts

Newcastle in 1825 - Newspaper Extracts

Newcastle Ocean Baths - 1915

Newcastle Publicans - 1828

Newcastle in 1828 - there were less than fifty houses in Newcastle in 1828, mostly cottages built by convicts and trades people. Other buildings included the Commissariat, Gaol and Hospital - and there were several inns.

Newcastle in 1829

Newcastle Lifeboats - 1861

Newcastle in 1870 - People and Places

Newcastle of the Past - Watt-street and Its Historical Associations by Wilfred J. Goold

1850 - Obelisk erected on site of the old brick and stone windmill

Oliver, Benjamin Joseph - Reminiscences of Newcastle 1870s

Owen, Lieutenant Thomas - Engineer of Public Works and Naval Officer

Pattison, Robert Lorn - steam boat captain

Pirates Seize the Norfolk - in 1800

Pirates at Newcastle - the fate of convict escapees in 1806

Pirates Seize the Speedwell in 1814

Pirates Seize the cutter Eclipse in 1825

Pirates attempt to Seize the Gurnett in 1826

Port of Newcastle in 1856

Preston, Walter - Convict Engraver

Priest, George - Reminiscences - Description of Newcastle in 1840s and 1850s

Reid, James resided at Newcastle 1830s and 1840s

Reminiscences of Colin Christie

Reminiscences of Albert Hudson and Robert Fleming

Reminiscences Hugh Gilmour - 1850s

Reminiscences of James Charles Davies - 1860s

Reminiscences of Owen Ahern - 1860s

Reminiscences of Benjamin Joseph Oliver - 1870s

Reminiscences of Watt Street Newcastle

Rob the Ranter - Observer and commentator 1861

Sandhills at Newcastle - Report in 1852

Scott, Alexander Walker Granted 2560 acres of land at Ash Island in 1829

Sea Grave Yard - the dangers of the entry to the Hunter River were well known from earliest exploration and settlement

Signal Flags at Newcastle the township was so lacking in government funding even signal flags had not been replaced

Skottowe, Lieut. Thomas, Commandant at Newcastle 1811 - 1814

Second Settlement - Newcastle 1804

Signal Staff at Newcastle -1858

Smith, Gentleman John - sent to Newcastle in 1815

Smith, William - overseer of boat builders. Arrived on ship Larkins in 1817

Sophie Jane Steamer - a voyage to Newcastle on the Sophie Jane in 1831

Stacy, John Edward, Medical practitioner

Stockton History and Links

Thompson, Lieutenant Thomas - 46th regt., Commandant at Newcastle 1814 - 1816

Threlkeld, Rev. Lancelot - permitted to reside at the government cottage at Newcastle in 1825

Throsby, Charles assistant surgeon and magistrate at Newcastle in 1804

Throsby, Charles - to Newcastle on the Francis in March

Tucker, John - Appointed Store keeper at Newcastle in 1804

United States Exploring Expedition

Vaux, James Hardy wrote his Memoirs including the Vocabulary of the Flash Language at Newcastle

Wallis, Captain James - Commandant at Newcastle 1816-18

Walmsley, Joseph - Innkeeper, City Arms

Wilton, Rev. Charles Pleydell Neale appointed to the chaplaincy at Newcastle

William Wilton, Medical Practitioner

Wreck of the King William Steamer in 1839

Wrensford, Henry Wrensford - Newcastle's first school master

Samuel Wright - Superintendent of Police at Newcastle