Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History




Newcastle History - Links


Adamstown History - The suburb of Adamstown was established in 1869 between the Borehole and New Lambton


Ahern, Owen - Reminiscences - William Ahern was a member of the Newcastle Customs and of the Life Boat crew for much of his career. In an article published in the Newcastle Morning Herald in the 1860s, Owen Ahern reminisces about the Newcastle of his boyhood


A Last Farewell - The first A.N.Z.A.C. Day was commemorated at Newcastle on 25th April 1916 and was attended by thousands of people


Allman, Francis - Captain Francis Allman of the 48th regiment was appointed commandant at Newcastle in 1824


Armstrong, Garrett - Garrett Armstrong arrived on the Recovery as a soldier of the New South Wales Corps in 1808. He became a notorious bushranger


Atkinson, William - arrived on the convict ship Guildford in 1827. Took to bushranging and sent to Norfolk Island in 1840


Australia's Strongest Sports Centre - In 1947 the Daily Telegraph produced a souvenir supplement to commemorate the 150th anniversary of the founding of Newcastle. This article mentions many of Newcastle's sporting heroes of the day


Australian Agricultural Company - The Company was incorporated in 1824. With a capital of one million pounds, an agreement with the British Government was undertaken that a million acres of land in NSW would be alienated to the Company


Australian Agricultural Company Mine at Newcastle -The first Australian Agricultural Company mine at Newcastle was opened in 1831


Australian Agricultural Company miners - a list of some of the Australian Agricultural Company employees and servants in Newcastle


Bank of Newcastle - First Provincial Bank established in the Colony


Barrallier, Ensign Francis Louis - engineer and explorer. In July 1801 he accompanied the expedition to the Coal River (Newcastle) where he surveyed the harbour.


Barton, Lady Jane, Jane (Jeannie) Mason Ross, born in London on 11 June 1851, and later the wife of Australia's first Prime Minister Sir Edmund Barton, spent most of her girlhood in Newcastle


Beacher, Richard - arrived as a convict on the Burrell in 1830. He became a well-known pilot in the harbour of Newcastle


Beattie, Francis - arrived as a convict on the Indian in 1810. Later became one of the early innkeepers at Newcastle


Bells played an important part in the lives of our ancestors


Biddulph, Commander Edward - a former Royal Navy Lieutenant who brought the makings of Sophia Jane, the first steamer to Australia from England


Binder, Richard - early settler in the lower Hunter and Innkeeper at Newcastle


Bingle, John arrived as second officer on the convict ship Minerva


Blaxland, Gregory opened the first salt works at Newcastle. Find the location here


Botany Bay Hero, Michael Keane arrived on the Seaflower in 1820


Bowker, Richard Ryther Steer - well-known Newcastle medical pracitioner


Brady, Thomas - Irish rebel, arrived on the Minerva in 1800


Brooks, George - early colonial surgeon at Newcastle. Served until 1847


Brown, Robert - botanist who accompanied Matthew Flinders' expedition to Australia and in 1804 collected specimens at the Hunter River


Buildings at Newcastle - a list from Historical Records of Australia


Bull, John Edward Newell - Superintendent of the breakwater 1840s and 1850s


Bushrangers near Newcastle escape from Nobbys stockade in 1842


Cabbage Tree Hats - once a part of everyday colonial life


Caley, George - Botanist. Under Sir Joseph Banks' patronage Caley departed England on the Speedy bound for Australia in November 1799. He accompanied the Expedition to Hunter River in 1801


Castle Hill Rebellion - An attempt by Irish convicts to overthrow British rule in New South Wales and return to Ireland where they could continue to fight for an Irish republic.


Convicts from the Castle Hill Rebellion - Convicts from the Castle Hill Rebellion were among prisoners sent to the Second Settlement at Coal River in 1804


Cedar Getters - Correspondence from Lieut. Menzies re the difficulties of procuring cedar


Christie, Colin - Reminiscences of Newcastle in the 1850's by former Mayor Colin Christie


City Baths - In 1880 the City Baths were located at Newcomen-street, Newcastle


Close, Lieutenant Edward - Officer of the 48th regiment - employed as engineer of Public Works at Newcastle in 1821. Later a settler at Morpeth


Coal Fire Beacon, built when Lieut. Close was employed as Engineer at Newcastle


Coal Mines at Newcastle in 1858 by Henry T. Plews


Colliers Point and the First Settlement at Newcastle


Convict Assignment and Punishment at Newcastle in 1813 - Government Orders


Convict Pirates - description of their fate at the hand of natives near Newcastle


Convicts at Newcastle in 1822 - Newspaper extracts


Convict barracks at the penal settlement


Coombes, John James - Convict Ship Captain and later wharfinger at Newcastle


Cottage Creek History


County Electors residing in Newcastle in 1855


The Old Court-house at Newcastle 1841 - 1900


Craig, William Harrison - Convict artist, arrived on the Guildford in 1812.


Cramp, W. B. - A Description of Newcastle Aboriginal people - By traveller W.B. Cramp


William Cromarty- harbour pilot


Crossley, George - Arrived on the Hillsborough in 1799.


Crummer, James Henry - Magistrate at Newcastle 1837 - 1849


Crump, Thomas - Boat builder. Arrived on the Surprize in 1794


Cumberland at Newcastle - reported to have been the largest vessel to ever have entered Newcastle Port in 1830


Custom House Time-ball completed


Dangar, Henry surveyed the streets of Newcastle in 1822 - 1823


A description of Newcastle and Maitland in 1826


Darby, George Elde, Surveyor and Headmaster


Davies, James Charles - Reminiscences of Newcastle in the 1860s


Death of Private Connachton 1817


Desmond, Thomas - bushranger at Newcastle in 1804


de Santo, Fortisco - boatbuilder in 1820


Discovery of Coal by escaping convicts William and Mary Bryant in 1791


Discovery of Lake Macquarie in 1800


Dixon, Frederick - arrived free on the Larkins in 1817. Sent to Newcastle in 1820 for a colonial crime where he became Clerk to the Commandant and Principal Superintendent of Convicts and public works and later a publican


Draffen, Ensign - Instructions to Ensign Draffen in 1805


Durack, Fanny - Olympic Champion at Newcastle Ocean Baths 1915


Early Convict Coal Miners - 1802


Eckford, William - arrived free on the Earl Cornwallis in 1801. Sent to Newcastle for a colonial crime where he became a harbour pilot


Evans, William - arrived on the Experiment in 1809. Appointed assistant surgeon in 1810


Executions at Newcastle, Maitland and the Hunter Valley in 1830s and 1840s


Expedition to the Hunter River on the Lady Nelson in 1801


Explosion at Newcastle - children killed, 1826


Farrell, Roger - Correspondence re injustices he had suffered at Newcastle


Female Factory at Newcastle


Fenton, Abraham - appointed Assistant Surgeon at Newcastle in 1820


Field, John - employed as gaoler at Newcastle Gaol


Fisk, Arnold - harbour master and pilot in 1828


Fitzgerald, John - bushranger at Newcastle in 1806


Fleming, Robert - Reminiscences of Albert Hudson and Robert Fleming in 1850s


Fleming Brothers Reunion sons of Peter Fleming re-unite at Newcastle in 1923


Flood, Alexander - innkeeper at the Caledonia Hotel


Forrester, Long Tom - Bushranger. Executed at Newcastle in 1843


Frank the Poet arrived on the Eliza convict ship in 1832. He became one of Australia's best known poets


Furlong, Richard Tasker, Engineer and Superintendent at No. 3 Stockade


Gamack, Alexander - Medical Practitioner and Surgeon at Newcastle


Gillman, Henry - Commandant at Newcastle in 1823


Gilmour, Hugh - Reminiscences of Newcastle 1850s


Gore, William - convict at Newcastle in 1808


Government Rules - established at Newcastle in 1807 to prevent prisoners having any contact with the outside world


Governor Macquarie's Notice re free pardons in 1810


Governor Macquarie's Tour of Inspectionin 1811


Governor Macquarie's Visit to Newcastle in 1818


Governor Bourke to Newcastle in 1833


Governor Bourke to Newcastle in 1836


Governor Gipps' Visit to Newcastle in 1844


Grant, Lieutenant James - Commander of the Lady Nelson


Harbour Lights - leading lights at Newcastle


Harris, John, surgeon. Joined the expedition to the Hunter River in 1801


Harris, Dr. May - Newcastle's first female medical practitioner qualified in 1895


Hayes, Sir Henry Browne - convict at Newcastle in 1808


Hemsworth Huntington's History of Newcastle


Heritage Buildings and Interesting Locations in Newcastle


Hewson, John Butler - constable and innkeeper


Horse Patrols and the Mounted Police - 1825-26


Hudson, Albert - Reminiscences of Albert Hudson and Robert Fleming - Newcastle in 1850s


Hughes, Charles - assistant-pilot at Newcastle and later innkeeper


Hunter River Discovered 1797


Hunter River Tragedy - 1815


Hunter River Steamers


Hunter-street Church - Ceremony for the laying of the Foundation stone


Jackson, George - harbour master and pilot


Journal of a Voyage from Sydney to Newcastle and Maitland in 1844 - by David Burn


The brig Kangaroo arrived at Newcastle in 1816


Last, Edward - assistant engineer at Newcastle Stockade in 1844


Launch of the Francis in 1793


Lawson, Lieut. William - temporary Commandant in 1805


Lawson, Lieutenant William - Commandant in 1808


Lawson, Lieutenant William - Correspondence re state of the settlement


Lime Burners Gang near Newcastle


Livingstone, Alexander arrived as chief officer on the Jessie in 1821


Lycett, Joseph - Convict artist


Mackay, Duncan Forbes - Superintendent of Public Works at Newcastle in 1826


McClymont, James and Nancy - innkeepers at the Ship Inn


McGreavy, James - innkeeper at the Victoria Inn


Meikle, James - Early Australian Experiences


Menzies, Lieutenant Charles - Royal Marine. Commandant at Newcastle 1804


Middleton, Rev. George Augustus - appointed to Newcastle 1821


Mileham James, surgeon - accompanied the expedition to Newcastle in 1804


Military Barracks at Newcastle


Miner at Newcastle - refusal to work in 1838


Miners' Arms


Morgan, Cosby William - Honorary Medical Office - Newcastle Hospital


Morisset, Major James Thomas, Commandant


Newcastle Penal Settlement - Under command of Lieut. John Purcell of 73rd Regiment


Newcastle Port Regulations - 1815


Newcastle Gaol - constructed in 1816-18


Newcastle Penal Settlement - in 1810


Newcastle in 1820 - Newspaper Extracts - Death of Burrigan in October


Newcastle in 1824 - Newcastle Extracts


Newcastle in 1825 - Newspaper Extracts


Newcastle Ocean Baths - 1915


Newcastle Publicans - 1828


Newcastle in 1828 - there were less than fifty houses in Newcastle in 1828, mostly cottages built by convicts and trades people. Other buildings included the Commissariat, Gaol and Hospital - and there were several inns.


Newcastle in 1829


Newcastle Lifeboats - 1861


Newcastle in 1870 - People and Places


Newcastle of the Past - Watt-street and Its Historical Associations by Wilfred J. Goold


1850 - Obelisk erected on site of the old brick and stone windmill


Oliver, Benjamin Joseph - Reminiscences of Newcastle 1870s


Owen, Lieutenant Thomas - Engineer of Public Works and Naval Officer


Pattison, Robert Lorn - steam boat captain


Pirates Seize the Norfolk - in 1800


Pirates at Newcastle - the fate of convict escapees in 1806


Pirates Seize the Speedwell in 1814


Pirates Seize the cutter Eclipse in 1825


Pirates attempt to Seize the Gurnett in 1826


Port of Newcastle in 1856


Preston, Walter - Convict Engraver


Priest, George - Reminiscences - Description of Newcastle in 1840s and 1850s


Reid, James resided at Newcastle 1830s and 1840s


Reminiscences of Colin Christie


Reminiscences of Albert Hudson and Robert Fleming


Reminiscences Hugh Gilmour - 1850s


Reminiscences of James Charles Davies - 1860s


Reminiscences of Owen Ahern - 1860s


Reminiscences of Benjamin Joseph Oliver - 1870s


Reminiscences of Watt Street Newcastle


Rob the Ranter - Observer and commentator 1861


Sandhills at Newcastle - Report in 1852


Scott, Alexander Walker Granted 2560 acres of land at Ash Island in 1829


Sea Grave Yard - the dangers of the entry to the Hunter River were well known from earliest exploration and settlement


Signal Flags at Newcastle the township was so lacking in government funding even signal flags had not been replaced


Skottowe, Lieut. Thomas, Commandant at Newcastle 1811 - 1814


Second Settlement - Newcastle 1804


Signal Staff at Newcastle -1858


Smith, Gentleman John - sent to Newcastle in 1815


Smith, William - overseer of boat builders. Arrived on ship Larkins in 1817


Sophie Jane Steamer - a voyage to Newcastle on the Sophie Jane in 1831


Stacy, John Edward, Medical practitioner


Stockton History and Links


Thompson, Lieutenant Thomas - 46th regt., Commandant at Newcastle 1814 - 1816


Threlkeld, Rev. Lancelot - permitted to reside at the government cottage at Newcastle in 1825


Throsby, Charles assistant surgeon and magistrate at Newcastle in 1804


Throsby, Charles - to Newcastle on the Francis in March


Tucker, John - Appointed Store keeper at Newcastle in 1804


United States Exploring Expedition


Vaux, James Hardy wrote his Memoirs including the Vocabulary of the Flash Language at Newcastle


Wallis, Captain James - Commandant at Newcastle 1816-18


Walmsley, Joseph - Innkeeper, City Arms


Wilton, Rev. Charles Pleydell Neale appointed to the chaplaincy at Newcastle


William Wilton, Medical Practitioner


Wreck of the King William Steamer in 1839


Wrensford, Henry Wrensford - Newcastle's first school master


Samuel Wright - Superintendent of Police at Newcastle