- Arrival of the First Fleet to Botany Bay; removal to Port Jackson; colony of NSW formally proclaimed
- Marines executed; outbreak of small pox; James Ruse's farm; return of the Sirius with supplies for the colony; wreck of the convict ship Guardian
- Sirius wrecked off Norfolk Island; first salt made at Dawe's Battery; arrival of the Second Fleet; Governor Phillip speared by Willemering.
- Escape from the colony of William and Mary Bryant; first land grant in Australia; arrival of the Third Fleet; commencement of whale fishery
- Arrival of convict ships Pitt, Royal Admiral and Kitty. Return to England of Governor Phillip and the NSW Marine Corp
- Arrival of convict ships Bellona and Sugar Cane; the vessel Francis launched in Sydney; John Macarthur granted 100 acres
- Arrival of convict ships William and Surprize. Attempt by Henry Hacking to cross the Blue Mountains
- Port Stephens surveyed by Charles Grimes; arrival in the colony of Governor Hunter; expeditions by Matthew Flinders and George Bass in the Tom Thumb
- Escape of Thomas Muir on the Americal ship Otter; bushranger Black Caesar shot and killed; arrival of convict ships Marquis Cornwallis and Indispensable
- Wreck of the Sydney Cove; arrival of the convict ships Britannia and Ganges; mutiny on the Lady Shore; Lieutenant John Shortland entered and named the Hunter River; departure of George Bass to explore the south coast.
- Wilson's Promontory sighted by George Bass; arrival of convict ships Barwell and Britannia
- Circumnavigaton of VDL completed by Bass and Flinders; arrival of convict ship Hillsborough
- Arrival of convict ships Minerva, Speedy, Friendship, Porpoise and Royal Admiral; entrance to Lake Macquarie discovered. Irish conspiracy uncovered; arrival of James Grant on the Lady Nelson
- Arrival of convict ships Anne, Earl Cornwallis, Canada, Minorca and Nile. Expedition to Hunter (Coal) River. Settlement established at Coal River (Newcastle)
- Attempt by George Caley to cross the Blue Mountains; Matthew Flinders encounter with Nicholas Baudin at Encounter Bay. Attempt by Francis Barrallier to cross the Blue Mountains; government settlement at Newcastle closed.
- Exploration of the site of Melbourne by Charles Grimes; Disappearance of George Bass; Cato and Porpoise wrecked
- Stone bridge built over the Tank Stream; government brewery at Parramatta; uprising of convicts at Castle Hill; Newcastle re-opened as a penal settlement
- Launch of the Governor Hunter; Lieut. Menzies resigned from position at Newcastle; loss of the Francis off Newcastle
- Catastrophic flooding at the Hawkesbury; arrival of William Bligh on the Lady Madeline.
- Report by Governor Bligh re the public buildings in Sydney; departure of Phillip Gidley King for England; John Tucker appointed storekeeper at Newcastle
- John Macarthur charged with sedition; Governor Bligh arrested
- William Lawson commandant at Newcastle; first post office in the colony established
- Lachlan Macquarie took up his appointment as Governor of NSW; Lieut. John Purcell appointed Commandant at Newcastle; death of Lieut-Governor Collins in VDL
- William Evans appointed surgeon at Newcastle; James Hardy Vaux to Newcastle; Lieut. Skottowe appointed Commandant at Newcastle; building of Sydney Hospital commenced
- Governor Macquarie visited Newcastle; Simeon Lord established a glass blowing shop; publication of select committee report into transportation
- Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Charles Wentworth crossed the Blue Mountains opening up the interior of NSW for European settlement. John Macarthur sent the first wool exports to England. Holey dollar and dump became legal tender