was built at Chepstow in 1814. This was the second voyage of the England
bringing convicts to New South Wales, the first being in 1826
Some of the convicts transported on the England
were tried and convicted at the Old Bailey and imprisoned at Newgate before being sent to the hulks. Select here
to find out what it may have been like to be imprisoned in Newgate in 1835.
Cabin Passengers included D.A.C.G. Smith, Captain James Henry Crummer
, Mrs Crummer and 3 children,
Ensign Ewen and 29 rank and file of the 28th regt., 9 women and 7 children.
SURGEON OBADIAH PINEO
Obadiah Pineo R.N. kept a medical Journal from 12th May 1835 to 20 October 1835. Although he was a well experienced surgeon, this was his first appointment as surgeon superintendent on a convict ship.
He embarked on the England on 1st June 1835 at Portsmouth. He noted that of the 230 male prisoners some had bodily infirmity such as contracted limbs, others with distorted limbs and three of them were over 60 years of age. Most however were young and had all the appearance of health.
The first case recorded in his journal was on the 1 June when Thomas Berriman, age 17, presented with a sprain of the wrist joint in consequence of it being suddenly bent backwards by another prisoner when getting into the vessel which brought them to the England
The following prisoners were treated by Obadiah Pineo while the England
still lay at Spithead.....Edward Johnstone age 18 was treated for an irregularity on the joint of his finger; Thomas Millington age 35 for chest pains and John Holgate for furunculi on his cheek on 3 June. On 4th June Charles Preston age 46 was treated for eruptions on the face and neck, James Sweeten was vaccinated in both arms. On 5th June Mark Grand age 20 was treated for Catarrhus and slight cough. Several other men were treated by the surgeon before the vessel set sail.
departed Portsmouth 8th June 1835
There were no epidemic diseases during the voyage. The vaccine with which the surgeon was supplied did not succeed in a single instance. There were a great number of spontaneous cases of ptyalism (Excessive salivation)............
About 40 cases directly after leaving England which I am unable to account for unless perhaps to the great change of diet, use of tobacco and strong excitement on leaving their native land, many of them forever. For all men however hardened must have experienced painful emotions on leaving their native land under such circumstances
A few cases of scurvy took place, the latter part of the voyage of mild character. It appeared amongst the young prisoners and in the form of discoloured legs with some hardness and spongy bleeding gums.. With these port wine every day and lime juice with sugar and water were used freely..........
For the prevention of scurvy in these ships much appears to depend on the cleanliness and ventilation of the prisons which ought to be kept as dry as possible. The free use of chlorate of lime and also of vinegar throughout the whole of the prisoners as well as down the water closets daily are most favourable for the preservation of a pure air and doing away all unpleasant smells. Next to these is keeping the whole of the prisoners on deck whenever the weather will allow of it; and keeping them employed in some way or other not the least amongst all the probably means of securing good health is their full allowance of provisions and that provisions thoroughly cooked with a liberal allowance of wholesome water. Washing their clothes at proper seasons and bathing generally in the warm latitude will also greatly contribute to the preservation of good health and add much to comfort of each man.
arrived in Port Jackson on 28th September 1835.
The printed convict indents are arranged in alphabetical order by the place of conviction:
Berkshire - 4 men convicted
Cambridgeshire - 9 men
Central Criminal Court - 64 men
Cornwall - 1 man
Devonshire - 4 men
Dorsetshire - 3 men
Essex - 9 men
Hereford - 1 man
Lancaster - 4 men
Middlesex - 12 men
Norfolk - 16 men
Northampton - 5 men
Oxford - 2 men
Somersetshire - 5 men
Southampton - 13 men
Staffordshire - 2 men
Suffolk - 9 men
Surrey - 17 men
Sussex - 13 men
Warwickshire - 13 men
Wiltshire - 14 men
Yorkshire - 3 men
Dominica - 1 man
Guernsey Royal Court - 2 men
Newfoundland - 1 man
Jamaica court-martial - 2 men
Devonport court-martial - 1 man
Convict ships bringing detachments of the 28th regiment included Recovery, Marquis of Huntley, Charles Kerr, Westmoreland, Norfolk, Backwell, England, John Barry, Susan, Waterloo, Moffatt, Strathfieldsaye, Portsea and Lady McNaughten
Soldiers of the 28th regiment stationed in Newcastle & Maitland 1836-37 included
NOTES AND LINKS
1). Obadiah Pineo was also employed as surgeon on the convict ships
to NSW in 1836
to NSW in 1838
2). Below is a list of convicts of the England
who have been identified in the Hunter Valley and were later assigned to settlers such as John Laurio Platt
, William Ogilvie
, Timothy Nowlan
and Thomas Bartie
Find out more about these Hunter Valley convicts here
John James (Joseph Woodfall)
 Ancestry.com. UK, Royal Navy Medical Journals, 1817-1857 . Medical Journal of Obadiah Pineo on the voyage of the England in 1835. The National Archives. Kew, Richmond, Surrey.
 Bateson, Charles Library of Australian History (1983). The convict ships, 1787-1868 (Australian ed). Library of Australian History, Sydney : pp.352-353, 389