The convicts of
the Henry came from counties throughout England. Some were
held in county gaols after trial, or if they had been tried at the
Old Bailey they were sent to Newgate. From these prisons they were
transferred to the prison Hulks to await transportation.
Some of the prisoners of the Henry who had been tried at
the Old Bailey were transferred to the prison hulk Retribution
at Woolwich on 7th February 1823.
In an article in the
Sunday Times in November 1822, it is revealed what they may
have been given to eat for this two months spent on the hulk when it
was reported that an opulent butcher from Rochester had won the
contract to victual the convicts stationed on the hulks at Woolwich
and Sheerness at three-pence farthing a man per day. The provisions
were to consist of good ox beef, bread, small beer, cheese and meal.
Many of the prisoners were transferred from the Hulks to the
Henry on 7 April 1823. The Henry departed London
on 28 April 1823 just four days after the
Ocean also bound for New
South Wales. The Commodore Hayes for Van Diemen's Land
departed with 219 prisoners on 26 April 1823.
consisted of 32 rank and file of the 3rd regiment (Buffs) under the
orders of Captain H. Lockyer and Lieutenant Thomas Henry Owen. With
their families there were a total of 52 people. Other ships bringing detachments of the 3rd regiment included the
The 3rd Regiment had its headquarters in Sydney between 1822 and
1827 and companies were dispatched continuously to various
outstations, serving in Tasmania and with other detachments at
Newcastle, Liverpool, Parramatta, Port Macquarie and Bathurst. The
regiment shipped to India at the end of its service. (1)
This was Thomas Davies' second voyage as Surgeon Superintendent on a
convict ship. Thomas Davies was also surgeon on the convict ships
Medway in 1821 and the
(111) in 1825.
He kept a Medical
Journal from 13th March 1823 to 29 August 1823.
He wrote in his Journal that the unusually healthy state of the Guard
and Convicts on the Henry may have in some measure depended
on the strict attention paid in every part of the ship; a constant
ventilation by windsails and keeping fires lighted in the prison
daily; at intervals admitting as many on deck at a time as possible;
employing them in various ways conducive to health; hammocks most
days on deck; special care taken in their use of the cold bath and
most particularly their body linen....(3)
convicts and passengers were mentioned in the surgeon's journal -
David Wilson, aged 19; disease or hurt, pains over the body,
particularly in the large joints, griping and tenesmus, skin hot and
dry, pulse frequent. Put on sick list, 2 April 1823, Gravesend.
Discharged cured, 12 April 1823.
William Booth, aged 28;
disease or hurt, seized in the night with rigor succeeded with much
heat of skin, belly slow, pulse above the natural standard. Put on
sick list, 17 April 1823, Sheerness. Discharged cured, 30 April
John Shaw, aged 23; disease or hurt,
cough and acute pain of the breast, pulse 98, small and hard, belly
costive. Discharged cured, 12 May 1823.
aged 30; disease or hurt, severe griping pain in the belly, frequent
stools, tenderness of the lower part of the belly, pulse frequent
and hard. Put on sick list, 10 May 1823. Discharged cured, 16 May
Thomas Cornhill, aged 19; John Carter, aged 18; John
Williams, aged 21; Thomas Jones, aged 28, William [Guit], aged 21;
Thomas Rutter, aged 20; disease or hurt, accidents between 42 north
latitude and 17 South latitude. Three of these were cases of ulcer
succeeding to accidents, others the result of accidents inseparable
from the movements of novices aboard ships.
aged 36, wife of Private Collins; disease or hurt, premature labour,
in the fourth month, stillborn twins. Put on sick list, 22 June
1823. Discharged cured, 6 July 1823.
[Mrs Captain] Lockyer;
disease or hurt, slight bowel complaint of a few days standing. Put
on sick list, 1 July 1823. No discharge date recorded but two days
John Fearnhead, aged 28; disease or hurt,
violent headache, nausea, vomited twice in the night, skin hot and
dry, eyes turgid. Put on sick list, 4 July 1823. Discharged cured,
15 July 1823.
John Wilson, aged 29; disease or hurt, acute
pain in the lower part of the belly, bowels much relaxed, slight
fever, tongue loaded. Put on sick list, 10 July 1823. Discharged
cured, 16 July 1823.
John Edwards, aged 58; John Holyland,
aged 30; Charles Paine, aged 47; William [Pite], aged 17; James
Stott, aged 15; William Boyle, aged 24; George Wigge, aged 17;
disease or hurt, slight cases of catarrh. Put on sick list, 15 July
1823. All discharged by last day of July 1823.
[or Francis], aged 59; disease or hurt, taken ill in the night with
every symptom of fever, his bowels have been open for four days. Put
on sick list, 3 August 1823. Discharged cured, 18 August 1823.
Joseph Lee, aged 28; disease or hurt, slight dysenteric disease,
attended with fever, soreness of the abdomen on pressure, stools
frequent, tenesmus. Put on sick list, 17 August 1823. Discharged, 25
entered Port Jackson at day light on Tuesday 26th August 1823, bringing 160
male convicts in good health- not one case of illness according to
the surgeon. The convict indents include the name,
age, native place, date and place of trial and physical description
with occasional information regarding Pardons and tickets of leave..
There is no information as to where and to whom the men were
assigned on arrival. About forty men have been identified residing
in the Hunter Valley region in the following years.
the men were assigned to settlers in the Hunter region - Thomas Ward
was assigned to
Joseph Onus at
Cockfighter's Creek; Thomas Shuttleworth was assigned to
Timothy Nowlan; John Newins was
Samuel Wright; John
Abercrombie to the
Australian Agricultural Company.
Captain Lockyer and his
wife sailed to Hobart on the Mariner in December 1823.
Notes & Links:
1). Old Bailey - George
Massey was found guilty of demanding from Mr. James Lockwood, in a
menacing manner, satisfaction for attempting to commit an abominable
offence. Shore, the constable, stated that at the time he
apprehended the prisoners, he used the foul threats mentioned in the
indictment, towards Mr. Lockwood, and acted with the most outrageous
violence. The Records ordered the convict to be called up instantly,
and sentenced him to seven years transportation and informed the
prosecutor that the public were greatly indebted to him for bringing
the prisoner to justice. - Sunday Times - 3 November 1822.
HERE to find out more about Hunter Valley convicts and passengers of the Henry
3). Return of Convicts of the
Henry assigned between 1st January 1832 and
31st March 1832 (Sydney Gazette 14 June 1832; 21 June 1832; 28 June
Patrick Golding (Goulding) - Gardener assigned to Dr. Forster at Field of Mars
William King - Ploughman assigned to William Bowman at Richmond
4). 3rd or East Kent Regt.
of Foot (Buffs) 1827...........
A Military History of Australia, Cambridge University
Press, 2000, p. 15
2. Bateson, Charles & Library of Australian History (1983). The
convict ships, 1787-1868 (Australian ed). Library of Australian
History, Sydney : pp.344-345, 384
3. Ancestry.com. UK, Royal Navy Medical
Journals, 1817-1857 [database on-line].
Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations,
Inc., 2011. Original data: Admiralty and
predecessors: Office of the Director General
of the Medical Department of the Navy and
predecessors: Medical Journals (ADM 101, 804
bundles and volumes). Records of Medical and
Prisoner of War Departments. Records of the
Admiralty, Naval Forces, Royal Marines,
Coastguard, and related bodies. The National
Archives. Kew, Richmond, Surrey.
National Archives - Reference: ADM 101/33/2 Description: Medical
and surgical journal of the convict ship Henry, for 13 March to 29
August 1823 by Thomas Davies, Surgeon and Superintendent, during
which time the said ship was employed in a passage to New South
Wales from England with 160 male prisoners.