Lushington Goodwin was a descendant of a
seafaring family from Kent. He was an
hydrographer, surveyor of the river Gambia and
had also produced charts of the British Channel.
He was about 33 years of age in 1831. (1)
Surgeon Thrasycles Clarke was the son of
Tracy Clarke, a country doctor from Lancashire.
This was his only voyage in the capacity of
Surgeon Superintendent on a convict ship. He was
about 42 years of age.
was the next convict ship to leave England for
New South Wales after the departure of the
Admiral on 5th July 1830. The previous female
convict ship to leave England was the
Roslin Castle which departed
England in March 1830. The Kains departed London
on 8th July 1830.
kept a medical journal from 11 June 1830 to 25
One elderly woman
whom Clarke would have liked to reject as she
was too infirm to make the voyage, died on the
passage out, however most prisoners were young
and healthy. The ship's sick list, transcribed
at the National Archives, reveals that Sarah
Revell, aged 78, was the elderly woman Clarke
referred to; she suffered with confusion,
uneasiness of the head, shortness of breath and
a sensation of suffocation when lying down. She
was put on sick list on 13 October 1830 and died
6 November 1830. (2) Sarah/Elizabeth
Blasdale alias White was the other woman who
died at sea.
The ship's sick list also
notes some of the children who were treated
during the voyage -
John Markey aged 2
˝, son of Ann Markey... disease or hurt,
accident. Put on sick list, 5 July 1830.
Discharged 15 July 1830 cured.
Beddowes, child of Elizabeth Beddowes - aged 9
months; disease or hurt, thrush and teething.
Put on sick list, 22 July 1830. Died 3 August
1830 at 7pm.
Infant Quinn - Child of Ann
Quinn, aged 8 months; disease or hurt, thrush
and teething. Put on sick list, 2 September
1830. Died 22 August 1830 at 10pm
Margaret Turner's child, aged 5; disease or
hurt, vermes. Put on sick list, 13 September
1830. Discharged 20 September 1830 cured.
Mary Healey’s infant, aged 10 months;
disease or hurt, teething, convulsion. Put on
sick list, 25 October 1830. Died 31 October
Michael Murphy, aged 1 ˝ ; disease
or hurt, pneumonia. Put on sick list, 2 November
1830. Discharged 21 November 1830 cured
Sarah Bowering’s child, aged 3 ˝ ; disease or
hurt, scurvy. Put on sick list, 13 November
1830. Discharged 28 November 1830 cured
According to Thrasycles Clarke, there were
no fewer than 81 women between the ages of 14
and 30 out of the 120; and many others between
30 and 40 years of age. There were three infants
under the age of six months who were sent with
their mothers and Clarke recommended for the
future to only send infants who had been weaned
at least 30 days prior to sailing.
Thasycles Clarke seemed disconcerted at the
large number of young women who were in his
charge and while not surprised at their
behaviour is perhaps nevertheless shocked by it.
This was his only voyage on a female convict
transport and he had probably been gently
reared. His beloved uncle whom he attended on
his death bed was the Rev. Adam Clarke.
Dr. Clarke described the women of the Kains in his journal
the general character and conduct
of the prisoners were such as might be expected
from the lowest class of society - from persons
whom all the wise and salutary laws of England
had failed to reclaim, most immoral and
abandoned, if there ever was a Hell afloat it
must have been in the shape of a female convict
ship, quarrelling, fighting, thieving,
destroying in private each others property for a
mean spirit of devilishness - conversation with
each other most abandoned without feeling or
shame. As regarded the personal cleanliness of
the prisoners that in some measure depended on
their natural disposition, education and
attitude, some of them by nature and habit were
cleanly while others were filthy to the 90th
During the voyage from
England to Teneriffe where they touched to
complete water, many of the women suffered from
sea sickness especially while passing down the
Channel when the weather was boisterous and the
sea rough. At Teneriffe they procured three days
of fresh beef and vegetables and the prisoners
were permitted to purchase as much fruit as they
pleased. As they approached the Line the winds
became variable from the south to south-west.
The prisoners were allowed to be constantly on
deck and a current of air through the prison and
hospital by means of wind sails was used. The
swinging stoves were used and the decks
sprinkled with a solution of the chloride of
lime according to directions.
comfort was attended to as much as possible, but
there were many cases of catarrhal, although
none very serious. Other illnesses treated by
the surgeon during the voyage included: ophthalmia, pneumonia, exanthemata aptha,
menorrhagia, catarrhal, dysentery, dyspepsia,
convulsions, syphilis, scorbutus, icterus,
constipation, tumor, fractures and natural
decay. The voyage had taken, from the day they
left Woolwich to the day they arrived in Sydney,
246 days or over 35 weeks and Thrasycles
Clarke's relief at arrival can be assumed. He
wrote towards the end of his journal -
protracted and disagreeable voyage we arrived at
Sydney on 11 March 1831 in as healthy a state as
was possible having no case of serious illness
on board. Two or three days after arrival
several complained of severe griping and purging
which was no doubt occasioned by change of
diet as immediately on our arrival fresh
provisions and vegetables were given to the
prisoners. They also had means of procuring
fruit, especially peaches. This bowel complaint
passed to every female in the ship, not one
woman escaped the illness, although it was not
The women were mustered on board by
the Colonial Secretary on 15th March 1831. The
indents include name, age, education, religion,
native place, marital status, family,
occupation, offence, date and place of trial,
sentence, former convictions, physical
description and to whom assigned on arrival.
There is also occasional information about
relatives already in the colony, colonial
convicts. pardons and deaths. Some of the
younger women on board included Bridget Butler,
Sarah McGregor and Mary Palmer who was all 16
years of age. All but one woman, assistant
cook Sarah Challenor who fractured her left leg
on 6th May by a blow from a cask during a storm
and was in hospital, were landed at the dock
yard on the 25 March 1831 in as healthy a state
as any ship which had before arrived.
colonists should have held no high hopes for the
usefulness of the women after their experiences
with the women of the
Roslin Castle, however
there was a shortage of female servants in the
colony; the Sydney Gazette reported that there
were five or six hundred applicants to have the
women assigned as servants and the factory at
this time was almost full, so most of the women
were privately assigned
Isabella Bradford from
Donegal but tried in Liverpool, was the first to
make the news when the Sydney Gazette reported
her misbehaviour in April 1831. She had been
assigned to Mr. Lyons in Sydney. In a style
favoured by the press at the time it was
reported that - Isabella Bradford, one of the
hopeful damsels just imported per Kains,
appeared "to shew cause", if any she knew, why
she should not rusticate for such period as
their Worships might deem suitable at
Gordon's maison de sante at Parramatta. Her
master stated that she left her service early on
Sunday morning without apprising any body of her
intentions, merely warbling with affecting
pathos - Fare thee well! And if for ever !!
Still for ever !!! Fare thee well !!!! Nothing
more was seen or heard of 'Fair Isabel" till the
afternoon, when she was observed by the Rev. Mr. Therry in the domain, "wrapped in oblivion's
slumber," having, to banish dull care, imbibed
sundry potations of Cooper's elixir. That
gentleman very properly sent two men to convey
her home, and her master, considering that such
a beginning presented no very flattering
prospect for the future, consigned her to the
district domicile. Being called on for an
explanation, "she did a good round tale deliver"
in extenuation, but it was little better than "a
tale of a tub", so their Worships ordered her to
try six weeks residence at the establishment
Isabella was probably taken to
the female factory in the 'black box' described
below.... The black box, for the conveyance of
the ladies to the retreat, under the
superintendence of Mrs. Gordon at Parramatta,
has of late been put into requisition more than
usual, in consequence of the importation per Kains turning out but so so. (4)
In May it was
announced that the Kains had been engaged to
convey a military detachment to Launceston.
One of the seamen on the Kains was Charles Picknell. In 1930 part of
his story and excerpts from diary he kept were
written by Mrs. R. Picknell and published in the
Sydney Morning Herald-
In the writer's
possession is a leather bound note book in
which a member of the Kains crew Charles
Picknell, kept a daily record of the voyage or
at least for the first half of it. For at
Capetown the entries cease. Whether the
diarist shirked, like so many diarist do, the
continuance of his efforts as a recorder or
whether he came to the end of his stationery,
the present writer cannot say. It is to be
regretted that the diarist's impression of the
Sydney of a century ago are not available,
but, in the entries of the six months covered,
we can obtain a graphic picture of the
conditions in which convicts of the early 19th
century were brought from British gaols and
taken to overseas penal settlements : of
incidents of the voyage; and of the relations
between master and crew. Charles
Picknell was illiterate; his spelling
atrocious in the light of present day
standards. But that he had some education is
shown by his writing - a bold, free flowing
style, which makes the reading of his
pencilled entries 100 years later, an easy
task. He was moreover, of an observant nature.
Nothing seemed to miss his sharp eyes. His
pencil never fails to record an interesting
incident, however small and personal. He was
judging by his comments on people and events a
keen shrewd student of character, simple
born on 15 June 1810, one of ten children of
William and Mary Picknell a Hastings (Sussex)
family. Five of the children died young. Of
his boyhood there is no record, but that he
was a fond and dutiful son there is evidence
throughout the diary. On the first page he had
copied the inscription from a gravestone in
the Fairlight cemetery as follows: Sacred to
the Memory of Marey the wife of William
Picknell, Who departed this life 16 October
1823 Aged 45 years. Also the mother of ten
children, five of whom are likewise departed
viz George, Mary, Thomas, Jobe, Sarah. The inscription
ended with a four lined verse all carefully
transcribed into the diary. I daresay that the
20 years old sailor often turned to that page
during the stress and strain of the long
voyage seeking comfort in it from the dangers
of his life and from the harsh bullying of his
officers. It has been
further established that Picknell was
apprenticed on 1 May 1826 to Boykett Breeds,
merchant and shipowner to learn the art of
Picknell died in 1886 at Hastings and was
buried not far from his mother.
(with Charles Picknell's spelling and grammar
29 June - took
in all prisoners from horse monger prison
30 June - took
in prisoners from newgate prison all ironed
and a crying
1 July took in
prisoners from liverpool and manchester. heavy
2 July took in
prisoners from bermigan (Birmingham) and city
Irish prisoners were taken aboard on the 4th
and 5th but meanwhile on the 3rd "a
sunderland brig drove athout (athwart) us,
careyed away our maintopsail in to peases" (two pieces). On the 6th three free women
named White Arthur and Harris came aboard.
prisoners and free women on board. Three
quakers came on board praying with them and
giving the prisoners all kinds of useful
things. orders came from the government to
sail next tide."
Picknell was on
the eve of his greatest adventure -
sailed from Woolwich at 1 am on July 8 1830.
The same afternoon she was at the mouth of the
Thames, where Captain Goodwin fired a 'buldog'
(salute) to his father. For three days the
Kains was anchored in the Downs, and soon
after she set sail again, Picknell wrote: "I had
the weal (wheel) first time, I wished myself
called at Spithead, and she was there on July
15 when King George IV was buried "Guns
firing on shore"
Picknell recorded "and
we all hand scrubbed hammocks".
The Kains remained off the England coast
until 28 July. Meanwhile Picknell entered in
his diary that the cook had shaved him and cut
his hair, that Swanage (where the ship
stopped) was the 'furtherest" he had been to
the west, that the 'starbert
watch abused the larbert watch'
and that at Torbay he hove the 'deapsy
led' (deep sea lead) and had a glass of grog for
doing it. At Exmouth visitors came aboard the Kains. "We
gave them three cheers. I lost my cap
overboard'. Picknell reported.
from England was made from Plymouth.
Picknell's diary entry of the day has a
graphic touch "lost sight of
old Landsend 1 o'clock. We and the 'Burrell'
of London with one hundred and twenty men
convicts both bound for Botany Bay, steered
west with 21 sails on. Women was downhearted
to leave old England. We run the Burrell out
of sight. left off shoes and vest. "
There was a
hint of trouble among the crew next day "captain
said 6 seamen wanted to rise a mutiny. It was
for talking to the women, put into irons,
lashed down to poop deck 2 days 1 night as
mutineers put 4 from larbert 2 starbert
watches. Fire arms over our heads 2 guns upon
the poop levelled into the main deck. Two
hundred miles from old England in the West
Ocean then he began to ill use us. Apprentice
Frederick Smith lashed up to Larbert rigging.
Flog 6 dozen lashes for saying you and I can't
hoist this punchin of wine alone. Guard over
him, Swords, daggers, Captain struck several.
A Quaint Sylist
naive are the next week's entries in the
youthful sailor's diary that they are worth
reproducing as they were written, with all
their quaint spelling and lack of capitals:
steard s. for warmer climate. I have for a
long time before and since afflicted with
growing pains all over me. (grog duff for 1
2. heavy sea
a.m. three east indiamen 1 dean brig showed
collours. homeward bound, England.
3am calm heavy
sea. captain. me. tryed current if not N.E. 2
hundred fathoms water, no sound. bay biscay.
in lowering the boat struck my head. nocked my
teath to peases.
P.M. spoke to
bark silvia of London bound to
riogenary (Rio de Janeiro), sun hotter than
ever in England, steard sw P.M. 6 o'clock.
Child dyed a
little girl 3 years old. evening captain gave
larbert watch bottle rum for singing to cheer
the women up
4am fair wind.
steard ssw 12 o'clock. launch child overboard
after prayers. crying. PM saw 5 spanish
schoners. 5 Italian schoners bound to
5 fair wind.
seard SSW AM saw one dutch gale yct. 1 grecian
brig. PM all hands at work
6. fair wind.
steard SSW 8 nots 21 sails on us all is well.
7. fair wind
steard SSW 10 nots. I got the guns ready for a
pirate and holey stone the quarter deck first,
all is well PM captain confined the chief mate
for getting drunk and encouraging his watch to
sing saucy songs. drunk 24 glasses.
On August 8
the Kains reached the island of Porto Santo, of which event Picknell wrote: 'Inhabited with
portugese. mountains in the clouds, larbert
watch saw it 50 nots before we got to it.
rejoicing". The chief mate was still under
guard so the boatswain took charge of the
larboard watch. On the 10th Picknell wrote AM
made sandwich islands, saw immence sight of
dolphins flying fish and mother careys
chickens flying about. 6 nots going. made peak
of tenreef hundred fifty miles off. going 11
His detail of
the Kains visit to Teneriffe is so good that
it must be given as he wrote it.
11 Went into
tenreef. let go our anchor then we let loose
the chief mate. bumboats alongside. boco fruit
(N.B. coco is an old Sussex word meaning fine,
said to be from the French beaucoup). I went on shore
with the captain in a boat. the first time I
was on foreign land. first step was an unlucky
one. I slip down. I had a glass of wine upon
strength of it. spanyards inhabitants.
12 Thursday I
went on shore. took in board 50 tons of wauter.
washing day. bark integirty of London.
experiment gernsy schooner. 11 spanish sconers
in harbour then and hundreds of boats
belonging to tenreef. I lost a collour over
board penant flying.
13 took in 10
tons of wauter. I went on shore and swam along
with the black boys. I went on shore 8 times
at tenreef with the captain.
On August 14
the Kains voyage to Botany Bay was resumed but
Picknell had uncomfortable reason to recall
his stay at Teneriffe during the next few
hurt myself eating fruit at tenreef. I sold my hankerchief
for a hat full of grapes"
As the ship
approached the tropics, Picknell had some
interesting experiences to records.
Flying fish like sholes of birds the first
that flew on board. no land. no ship. all is
well. lowanced gallon of wauter a man- half a
gallon each pit. pint each goose, half a
gallon dosen ducks. pint a dosen chickens.
every day all the voige.
17. trades wind
NE steard s west. chief mate confined again
for sending from tenreef to London and other
misconduct. I was verry sick and in the
doctors hands. took a medick, verry light
headed, soar throat eat nothing for 4 days.
18. verry bad
and light head. doctor paid me verry great
attention every our. chief mate let loos to
walk the decks. he broke, to have no command
nor say whatever no more on board:
On August 19
the Kains entered the tropics. Picknells fever
continued. He had scurvy in the
but said that he was well attended and by the
22nd he was able to record "I got myself
out of the doctors list, thank god for it. I
was ordered to clear of the sun and moon
always and ware a broad brimed hat"
One of the
woman convicts died.
twenty five years of age, two sisters. other
one 15 years old belong to hull. 12 o'clock
sowed up. prayers and then throwed her
overboard, crying all over the ship. they was
boath for life."
southward run continued. Picknell recorded
such events as catching sharks, eating pieces
of them and putting their "tails
and wings at the end of jibboom and sprit sail
yard arms end".
One, Bob Sims - probably a superstitious
fellow - "throwed a cat
All hands were affected by the terrific heat
and got prickley heat all over them.
One day the
Kains met a Portuguese brig. The master
boarded her and the crew said Pickenll "got thousands
of segars gave us"
On September 7 "a beautiful
brig, a pirate, spanish, bore down upon us and
came up under lee. ask us in spanish were from
ask us in England were bound told him east
india. we opened ports loaded up all our guns
with 2 balls ready for actions"
But the pirate turned tail and so the day's
entries came once more to be devoted to the
routine of the sailor's hard life of a century
As a junior
member of the crew, Picknell seems to have had
more than his share of the small jobs to do
but he apparently attended to them well and
without complaint in the trying heat and heavy
topical rains. In the middle of September, he
became a real blue water man by "taking to chew
tobacco and eating garlick"
naively reporting himself after doing so as "In
prisoners had Patchwork, needles and thread
served out to them. A six days tempest was
encountered and considerable damage was done
to the Kains sails and spars. Several of the
crew suffered minor injuries.
recorded the meeting in mid ocean of the Kains
and two other ships. the weather was calm, so
the captains hove to and exchanged courtesies.
The ships were the American 'Herald' from
which a hundredweight of tobacco was bought a
1/- a lb, and the Susan Ann, a London cutter.
The captains of these two vessels came aboard
the Kains - a social affair that makes
interesting reading these days. The Herald was
six weeks out from America, the susan Ann two
months from England, the Kains six weeks from
Teneriffe. How the three masters must have
enjoyed the dinner which the Kains cook
prepared for them and the glasses of wine they
At midday on
September 28 the Kains crossed the equator.
They observed the event with ceremony. Here is
Picknells' own account of the festivities
marking the Kains crossing: "very hot
across it, latitude 24s, longtitude nothing.
prisoners put into prison, cleared up the
deck. captain would not have no shaving on the
account of our live cargo.
(evidently the water supplies were running
short and it was necessary to conserve them,
not only on account of the humans abroad, but
also for the animals carried for fresh food
during the voyage. Hence the traditional
shaving and ducking of newcomers to Neptune's
domain were eliminated). captain said we
have what grog we like, grog came to us in
horse buckets captain doctor and all the
officers drank with us. we sung and played
habrem wackets and pason parrish quite merry
and drunk. prisoners singing well below. I
kept myself sober and had all the sport. the
merryest day we had on board ship Kains.
no tales heard nor law on board our ship. nor
no other ship on this day on the line.
Harem wackets, more generally called wackets
or wacks, and "pason Parrish" (parson of the
parish) were two games played by seamen)
first nine days of October Picknell had little
of interest to record.
On the 10th his entry was: fair. 4 sconers,
under our lee. we ore down upon them. they
took us to be a pirate and we took them to be
pirates. they all run together. they was
american sconers bound to new zealand and new
south shetlands. the captains all came on
board to dine.
An idea of
the hardships suffered by ships crews in those
days is given by Picknell's diary entry for
October 11: four wind,
spoke about our provisions, our bread mouldy
and magoty, our beef like oakwood, our wauter
stink and magoty. our peas all goan. 1 more
cask of flour, we must now eat what the hogs
want or starve quite.
was encountered, the Authol an English sloop
of war, which bore down on the Kains in search of
pirates and slavers from the Isle of sension (Ascension Island) to surleyhoan
(Sierra Leone). The master of the Kains was
informed that he was too near sickly Africa
where the winds blow tropical disease far out
to sea, so the Kains hove about. She was out
of the tropics again on October 18, but just
before that another child had died "the youngest
child on board"
Picknell worte, "belong to an
Irish girl. born in newgate. 8 months old"
The long voyage
and the wretched conditions were beginning to
tell upon the men. The master must have sensed
this , so to brighten his men he had two pairs
of boxing gloves made, and he, his officers,
and men had boxing matches on the quarter
The chief mate,
whose name was Cole, continued to be a source
of trouble and on October 26 the captain said
that he had incited three of the men to
mutiny. The four recalcitrants were put in
irons and fastened to the chain cable before
the windlass, where they remained for several
days until apparently they repented and were
set free. The chief mate however was confined
to his cabin. The Kains was running short of
water and the daily ration was reduced to half
a gallon and Picknell complained that the crew
was in a starving state.
There is a
delightful entry in the diary for October 31.
off my beard and mistashers (moustaches)"
Picknell recorded after letting it grow 6
got like a jew and was told of it"
brought colder weather. A nine months old
child died and a few days later the oldest
woman convict aboard - a Nottingham woman aged
81 years of age was also consigned to the
deep. An interesting note on November 13
recorded that at 10pm the Flying Dutchman, the
phantom ship of the oceans, had been sighted.
her into action"
1 gun. set all the women a crying, praying and
confessing there sins. plenty of fun and grog
Cape of Good
November the Kains steered her course south
east to Capetown. It was with relief that
Captain Goodwin must have realised that the
Cape of Good Hope was not far away for
Picknells diary indicates that the ships
stores and spares were perilously low. One day
Picknells recorded that there was "hardly a sail
or a piece of rope which was fit for trust to
be placed in". Picknell recorded that
"scurvy was raging aboard through bad living
and short wauter". Some are
laid up. It is high time we made land"
At last on
November 23 the Kains sighted the Cape of Good
Hope and in company with a Scarborough brig
she ran for Table Bay.
anchored close in shore but her troubles were
not nearly over. A heavy swell capsized the
windlass. "Much danger
under Table Cliff"
wrote Picknell. "very
rocky. We up our cable and run into Table Bay"
Even there trouble did not cease. The
sailors mutinied and after the captain had
beaten them with a mallet he put four of them
in goal. These four were tried ashore and they
were sentenced to 15 days imprisonment.
several trips ashore chiefly in the Captains
gig. He took advantage of them to buy some
food including salmon and sugar. Succeeding
days were spent in making good the damage done
to the Kains on the voyage from London. Table
Bay held no fewer than 30 English ships when
the Kains was there. The repair work was
continually delayed and interrupted by the
rough weather but just before Christmas the
work had been completed and a start was made
with getting fresh provision aboard. Christmas
celebrations were too much for the chief mate
Cole. Having got drunk he threatened Picknell
and other member of the crew with a pistol.
On Box Day
an attempt was made to resume the voyage but
the wind dropped, the Kains was becalmed, and
a forced anchorage was made. On December 29 a
wind from the south sprang up. The Kains hove
about, and was able to ship out of the bay.
Picknell's closing entries depict her as
preparing to 'Run
the easting down"
His diary a
really human document, ends on the last day of
1830, with a note that 'Prisoners and
sailors sung the old year out, the new one
sailed from Sydney bound for Launceston on 8th
June 1831 and soon encountered stormy seas and
gale force winds. She was forced to seek
here to read Captain Goodwin's
Notes and Links:
Police Office, Sarah Edwards, having
only arrived in the Kains about a fortnight
ago and not being acquainted with the
geographical position of the metropolis, had
been travelling ever since she left her
master's house until a constable picked her
up. Sentenced to extend her tour to
Parramatta, where she would have suitable
entertainment at Gordon's Hotel for six weeks
2). A list of female
prisoners assigned to settlers in the month of
October 1832 was published in the
Sydney Gazette and the following women from
the Kains were included in the list:
Assigned to Captain Kersopp, 4th reg., Parramatta
Assigned to William Edney, Sydney
Assigned to Ann Campbell, Liverpool Road
Assigned to George Tate, Campbelltown
Assigned to William Smith at Windsor
was one of four convict ships bringing female
prisoners to New South Wales in 1831, the
others being the
Earl of Liverpool,
Palambam and the
Hooghley. A total of 504 female
convicts arrived in the colony in 1831.
After leaving Sydney in July 1831, the Kains
experienced dreadful weather. They sailed into
where they were able to obtain desperately
needed water. (
Sydney Gazette 26
5).The following female convicts of the Kains
have so far been
identified in the Hunter Valley region.......
||Age 28. House maid and plain cook from London.
||Age 22. Nursemaid from Taunton.
||Age 24. Occupation - All work in a public house.
||Age 27. Cook and house maid from Northampton
||Age 22. Native place Manchester. Occupation needle
||Age 28. Native place Sicily. Occupation all work
||Age 20. From Manchester. Sempstress
||Age 34. Needlewoman from Gloucestershire
||Age 24. Native place London. Occupation all work
||Age 23. From Liverpool. Occupation all work
||Age 23. Widow. Native place Dublin. Occupation
||Age 19. Housemaid from Liverpool
||Age 22. From Surrey. Occupation all work
||Age 22. From Surrey. Occupation needlewoman
||Age 17. Native place Manchester. Occupation All
||Age 28. Native place Cork. Occupation housemaid
||Age 19. Native of Cork. Occupation washerwoman
||Age 16. From Liverpool. Occupation nurse girl
||Age 30. From Chester. Occupation washerwoman
||Age 20. Native place Limerick. Occupation country
||Age 40. Dairy maid from Essex.
||Age 22. Native place London. Occupation house maid
||Age 20. Native of Stockport. Occupation kitchen
||Age 20. Kitchen maid from Stockport
||Age 18. Native of Surrey. Occupation all work
||Age 23. Native of London
||Age 25. Native of Cork. Occupation all work
||Age 39. Native of Reading. Occupation all work
||Age 22. Native place Wexford. Occupation nurse
|Mary Ann Woods
||Age 19. Native of Belfast. House maid in a public
6). Sarah McGregor mentioned above and Mary Maloney were convicted of
the murder of Captain Charles Waldron at Illawarra
in 1834 and sentenced to death. They were later
pardoned. The two women were at the Female Factory
at Parramatta when Charlotte Anley, an acquaintance
of Elizabeth Fry, visited the prison in 1836....
Charlotte Anley wrote of the encounter in her
publication 'Prisoners of Australia'........
now about to leave them; when two of the women,
making way through the press, begged to speak with
me. They had committed murder on the person of a
Captain Waldron, to whose service they had been
assigned. Report spoke of him as a highly
respectable officer and a kind master, but not one
who considered the religious instruction of his
convict-servants, as important or practicable. The
prisoners were both young and extremely pretty; one
especially lovely, with a countenance expressive
only of mild melancholy, although I afterwards
learnt that they were both among the most refractory
and violent. The elder first approached me with a
countenance flushed with passion, and was about to
speak, when one of the women behind her pulled her
back, saying somewhat to her which I could not
distinctly hear; but again turning round, she
replied aloud, "I am not going to offend the lady; I
wouldn't say a word to make her angry, but she shall
hear me;" and then addressing herself to me, she
complained that she and her companion were always
pointed out to every stranger who visited the
factory as murderers, and they thought it hard that
they could have no peace, but were " hunted like
wild beasts," for a crime they never committed. I
was afraid to irritate her by direct contradiction,
but I ventured to say, that so serious a charge
would hardly have been brought against them without
some grounds. She repeated her denial of the deed,
adding, " I am not a murderer, for I never meant to
kill the man: we were in liquor when we beat him as
we did, but we couldn't help it that he died, and we
were sorry for it, although he deserved it." I need
not detail all that this wretched woman said in the
vindictive language of anger and desperation. I took
her apart from the rest, and, to turn the current of
her thoughts, I asked her of her early life; in
reply to which, she gave me a brief outline— sad
enough it was—of her first departure from moral
principle; for she had been, as I supposed from her
language, better educated than her degraded
condition might lead one to suspect.
7). Thrasycles Clarke died in 1834 leaving most of his
estate to his brothers and sisters. His will was
8). An Account of the Infancy, Religious and
Literary Life By J. B. B. Clarke.......
C. J. Craig, 'Goodwin, William Lushington
(1798–1862)', Australian Dictionary of Biography,
National Centre of Biography, Australian National
published in hardcopy 1966, accessed online 31 March
Sick List of the Convict Ship Kains, The
3. Sydney Gazette 14 April 1831
4. Sydney Herald 25 April 1831.