The Newcastle Hotel was established by John Smith in 1823 and may have been Newcastle's first licenced premises.
Frederick Dixon arrived free on the Larkins in 1817. He was granted land at Richmond. When he was convicted of a colonial crime, possibly perjury, in 1820 his grant was forfeited and he was sentenced to two years at Newcastle penal settlement. He arrived at Newcastle on the Elizabeth Henrietta in January 1820. 
By 1822 he was employed at Newcastle as the Clerk to Government Meter of Coals and Cedar, and Superintendent of Government Cattle and sheep, and by 1824 as Clerk to the Commandant and Principal Superintendent of Convicts and public works. He was replaced as Principal Superintendent of Convicts by Duncan Forbes Mackay in 1826.
Frederick Dixon was listed as a publican in the 1828 Census.
He was granted a publican's licence for the Crown Inn in King Street Newcastle in 1830 - 1832.
Frederick Dixon died on 23 January 1839 at Maitland age 46 leaving his wife Jane (nee Eckford) and five children.
Jane Eckford was the daughter of William and Mary Eckford. She was one of the first pupils to attend school in Newcastle in 1816 under school master Henry Wrensford. She died at Werries Creek on 10th April 1875.
 Colonial Secretary's Correspondence (NRS 937) Copies of letters sent within the Colony, 1814-1825 Item: 4/3501 Page: 197
 Certificates for publicans' licences, 1853-1861. NRS 14403, reels 5063-5066, 1236-1242. State Records Authority of New South Wales, Kingswood, New South Wales, Australia.