Caroline was the next vessel leaving from Ireland for New South
Wales with prisoners after the
February 1833. The Caroline departed Cork on 15th April
The crew consisted of twenty six men and boys
including the Captain. There was a Mate, 2nd Mate, 3rd Mate,
Carpenter, Steward, Cook, Sailmaker, ship's auditor and twelve
seamen. There were four apprentices, one of whom was lost overboard.
A boy on board was noted as being equal to a man.
female prisoners of the Caroline came from counties
throughout Ireland - Dublin, Roscommon, Armagh, Tyrone, Limerick,
Cork and Kerry etc. They were held in county gaols before being
transferred to Cork where they were held in the Penitentiary......
. .....House of Commons Papers 1834
Journal reported on 5th April 1833 that 56 free settlers, wives
and children of convicts in New South Wales, were embarked from the
Penitentiary house in Cork on to the Caroline at Cove and
on the following morning 120 female convicts from the same
establishment were conveyed on the Waterloo steamer to the
Caroline. Their appearance and conduct was said to be
George Birnie kept a Medical Journal
from 1 March to 28 August 1833........
In his General
Remarks he noted the arrival of the women and children.....On
the 29th March 1833 we received on board the Caroline at the Cove of
Cork, fifteen free women and forty one of their children, being the
wives and children of convicts ordered a passage to New South Wales
by His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant, and on the 30th we received
one hundred and twenty female convicts and thirteen of their
children, making a total of 189.
Lieut. Croker Barrington.
The surgeon's Journal
continues: - The Convicts when embarked had in general
a healthful and clean appearance and throughout the voyage they kept
themselves and their berths in a state of the most perfect
cleanliness. We had a good deal of sickness and incidental during a
long and solitary voyage to persons unaccustomed to a sea life; but
no deaths or casualties among the free settlers, the prisoners or
any of their children. It will be seen by the copy of the daily sick
book, I had in all ninety seven cases on the list and I regret that
I can give only sixteen and they imperfect, my papers having gone
astray during the disembarkation of prisoners. These few cases
however will give a pretty correct idea of the nature of the
complaints which generally occurred during the voyage.
instructions from the Admiralty, I am desired to guard as far as
possible against the introduction and spread of contagions as well
as attend to the health, comfort and morals of the prisoners placed
under my charge and I assert that nothing is more calculated to
fulfil the intention of these instructions than the the substitution
of proper water closets for the disgusting and beastly soil pans
especially in female convict ships to all consideration of the
intolerable nuisance produced in cases of general sickness by these
soil cases not only in the prison and hospital but all over the
ship, the men particularly in bad weather, are brought more in
contact with the women than they would otherwise be and the
disgusting office makes them assume liberties which they would not
otherwise do - Various other considerations, obvious enough but not
fit to be stated here induce me again to repeat that every convict
ship and more especially female convict ships should always be
fitted up with water closets. No one who has not actually
experienced it can form any adequate idea of the abominable and
disgusting nuisance of these soil pans as they are delicately
called. The chloride of lime was liberally used and contributed
greatly to the sweetness and comfort of the prison, hospital and
place allotted to the free settlers.
arrived in Sydney on 6th August 1833. The previous vessel carrying
female convicts was the
Surry which arrived in March 1833.
The prisoners of
the Caroline were mustered on 9th August. They were landed
on Friday 16th August and twenty were embarked on the steamer
Sophia Jane and taken to the Hunter region for assignment.
Notice was given that those families in want of female servants
could be supplied from the prisoners who arrived on the Caroline,
provided they apply according to the established form. The assignees
were required to enter into an engagement under a penalty of forty
shillings to keep their servants for one month unless removed by due
course of the law.
The free women were landed on Saturday
24th August and taken to the lumber yard where accommodation and
lodgings had been established. (The lumber yard was situated on the
corner of Bridge and George Streets until 1833). A great number of
them joined their husbands immediately and the remainder were
awaiting the arrival of their husbands from the interior. Their
names are included in the New South Wales, Australia Convict Ship
Muster Rolls and Related Records, 1790-1849 at Ancestry -
Grogan with two children;
Johanna Murray or Mahony with three
Bridget Kelly with four children;
with four children,
Ann Savage with three children;
Owens with four children;
Ellen Kinsela with one child;
Sarah Jordan with two children;
Mary Smith with six children;
Jane Cusack with two children;
Margaret McNamara with seven
Mary Hogan with five children
Margaret Ford or Keon;
Mary McNamara and
Heritage Branch site describes the lumber yard vicinity : -
The Government Convict Lumber Yard, established by Governor Phillip,
was established on the south-west side of the ‘Bridgeway’ (Bridge
Street) over the
Tank Stream and east of ‘High Street’ (George Street). It
extended to the bank of the Tank Stream. In 1806 part of the yard
was leased to Garnham Blaxcell, a merchant and trader who entered
into partnership with John McArthur who leased property across the
road in George Street. In 1810 the new governor, Lachlan Macquarie,
gave Blaxcell, Alexander Riley and D’Arcy Wentworth a contract to
build a general hospital to be completed in 1816, in return for the
right to import 45,000 gallons of spirits over the next three years.
An 1813 engraving of the area shows a substantial building within
the confines of the lumber yard which provided useful short-term
accommodation for female immigrants after the yard was closed in
George Birnie was also employed as surgeon on
convict ships Asia
in 1831and the Blenheim in 1837 (VDL)
Caroline was one of five convict ships bringing female
prisoners to New South Wales in 1833, the others being the
A total of 639 female convicts arrived in the colony in 1833.
The Caroline under Captain Macdonald was to sail for
Mauritius on 31st August 1833.
Notes & Links:
1). Commutation of the Sentence of Jane Charters - on
Wednesday the Sheriff of the county of Antrim received from the Lord
Lieutenant a communication commuting to transportation for life the
sentence of Jane Charters, who had been condemned at the
Carrickfergus Assizes, to be executed for the murder of her child.
The credit of this humane interposition is chiefly due to Mr. John
Marshall of Donegal street, who having been on the Jury at the time
of the trial suspected that insanity which he afterwards learned,
had been hereditary in the prisoner's family, might have led to the
commission of the act, by a series of most extraordinary exertions,
procured, first, a respite, and then - the Marquis of Donegal,
Colonel Pakenham, and other influential gentlemen having warmly
seconded his efforts - a commutation of the sentence. -Belfast
Newsletter 27 March 1832
Hunter Valley convicts and passengers arriving on the Caroline in
3). The Waterloo River Steamer .........
4). Family of Lieutenant Croker Barrington...
5). Lieut. Croker Barrington
was married at St. Anne's church Dublin to Margaret Emily, eldest
daughter of Henry Westropp Ross Lewin in 1840. They had a son in
1841 and Croker Barrington died in August 1844 at Kilkee and was
buried in the family vault at St. Mary's church.
Reddan's Newspaper Extracts
Sydney Monitor 7 August 1833