Prisoners came from counties throughout Ireland - Dublin, Roscommon, Armagh, Tyrone, Limerick, Cork, King's Co., Londonderry, Wicklow, Cavan, Co. Down, Kildare, Longford, Monaghan, Roscommon, Wexford, Fermanagh, Antrim, Louth, Belfast, Kilkenny, Mayo, Tipperary, Cork and Kerry etc. They were held in county gaols before being transferred to Cork where they were held in the Penitentiary.
The Freemans Journal reported on 5th April 1833 that 56 free settlers, wives and children of convicts in New South Wales, were embarked from the Penitentiary house in Cork on to the Caroline at Cove and on the following morning 120 female convicts from the same establishment were conveyed on the Waterloo steamer to the Caroline. Their appearance and conduct was said to be highly creditable.
The crew consisted of twenty six men and boys including the Captain. There was a Mate, 2nd Mate, 3rd Mate, Carpenter, Steward, Cook, Sailmaker, ship's auditor and twelve seamen. There were four apprentices, one of whom was lost overboard. A boy on board was noted as being equal to a man.
Departure from Ireland
The Caroline departed Cork on 15th April 1833.
Passengers included Lieut. Croker Barrington.;
Surgeon George Birnie
George Birnie kept a Medical Journal from 1 March to 28 August 1833........
In his General Remarks he noted the arrival of the women and children.....On the 29th March 1833 we received on board the Caroline at the Cove of Cork, fifteen free women and forty one of their children, being the wives and children of convicts ordered a passage to New South Wales by His Excellency the Lord Lieutenant, and on the 30th we received one hundred and twenty female convicts and thirteen of their children, making a total of 189.
George Birnie's Journal continues: -
The Convicts when embarked had in general a healthful and clean appearance and throughout the voyage they kept themselves and their berths in a state of the most perfect cleanliness. We had a good deal of sickness and incidental during a long and solitary voyage to persons unaccustomed to a sea life; but no deaths or casualties among the free settlers, the prisoners or any of their children. It will be seen by the copy of the daily sick book, I had in all ninety seven cases on the list and I regret that I can give only sixteen and they imperfect, my papers having gone astray during the disembarkation of prisoners. These few cases however will give a pretty correct idea of the nature of the complaints which generally occurred during the voyage.
By my instructions from the Admiralty, I am desired to guard as far as possible against the introduction and spread of contagions as well as attend to the health, comfort and morals of the prisoners placed under my charge and I assert that nothing is more calculated to fulfil the intention of these instructions than the the substitution of proper water closets for the disgusting and beastly soil pans especially in female convict ships to all consideration of the intolerable nuisance produced in cases of general sickness by these soil cases not only in the prison and hospital but all over the ship, the men particularly in bad weather, are brought more in contact with the women than they would otherwise be and the disgusting office makes them assume liberties which they would not otherwise do - Various other considerations, obvious enough but not fit to be stated here induce me again to repeat that every convict ship and more especially female convict ships should always be fitted up with water closets. No one who has not actually experienced it can form any adequate idea of the abominable and disgusting nuisance of these soil pans as they are delicately called. The chloride of lime was liberally used and contributed greatly to the sweetness and comfort of the prison, hospital and place allotted to the free settlers.
Arrival at Port Jackson
The Caroline arrived in Sydney on 6th August 1833. The previous vessel arriving in New South Wales carrying female convicts was the Surry in March 1833.
Sydney Monitor 7 August 1833
The women were mustered on 9th August and were landed on Friday 16th August. Twenty were embarked on the steamer Sophia Jane and taken to the Hunter region for assignment. Notice was given that those families in want of female servants could be supplied from the prisoners who arrived on the Caroline, provided they apply according to the established form. The assignees were required to enter into an engagement under a penalty of forty shillings to keep their servants for one month unless removed by due course of the law.
The free women were landed on Saturday 24th August and taken to the lumber yard where accommodation and lodgings had been established. (The lumber yard was situated on the corner of Bridge and George Streets until 1833). A great number of them joined their husbands immediately and the remainder were awaiting the arrival of their husbands from the interior.
Their names are included in the New South Wales, Australia Convict Ship Muster Rolls and Related Records, 1790-1849 at Ancestry -
Ann Grogan with two children;
Johanna Murray or Mahony with three children;
Bridget Kelly with four children;
Bridget McKeon with four children,
Ann Savage with three children;
Mary Owens with four children;
Ellen Kinsela with one child;
Sarah Jordan with two children;
Mary Smith with six children;
Jane Cusack with two children;
Margaret McNamara with seven children;
Mary Hogan with five children
Margaret Ford or Keon;
Mary McNamara and
The Government Convict Lumber Yard, established by Governor Phillip, was established on the south west side of the 'Bridgeway' (Bridge Street) over the Tank Stream and east of 'High Street'(George Street). It extended to the bank of the Tank Stream. In 1806 part of the yard was leased to Garnham Blaxcell, a merchant and trader who entered into partnership with John McArthur who leased property across the road in George Street. In 1810 the new governor, Lachlan Macquarie, gave Blaxcell, Alexander Riley and D'Arcy Wentworth a contract to build a general hospital to be completed in 1816, in return for the right to import 45,000 gallons of spirits over the next three years. An 1813 engraving of the area shows a substantial building within the confines of the lumber yard which provided useful short-term accommodation for female immigrants after the yard was closed in 1832.
Departure from Sydney
The Caroline under Captain Macdonald was to sail for Mauritius on 31st August 1833.
List of convicts arriving on the Caroline
C/F = Certificate of Freedom
Native place Monaghan. Tried in Co. Armagh 10 October 1832. Sentenced to 7yrs. Aged 53. Certificate of Freedom 21.10.1839. Ticket of Leave 1837 for the district of Parramatta Protestant, 5'2 1/2 , small grey eyes, brown to grey hair, sallow complexion, small scar left side of chin. Occupation 'dairy maid all work'
Native place Monaghan. Tried co. Armagh in 1831. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Aged 42. C/F 10.9.1844 and 24.12.1840
Native place Co. Cavan. Tried in Dublin in 1832 aged 60. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. C/F dated 9.12.1840
Native place Belfast. Tried Co. Antrim in 1832 aged 18. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. Married James Kennedy in 1835 aged 20.
Age 24. Native place Donegal. Assigned W. Klensendorffe, Yass C/F 40/0822 dated 9.5.1840. Married James Martin in 1834 in Sydney
(Honorah) Age 18. Native place Co. Cork. C/F 39/2072 dated 19 November 1839. Wife of Patrick Galvin per ship 'Castle Forbes' 1824. Married 1835 in Sydney. Possibly in Raymond Terrace area.
Alias Morris; Morrison. Age 44. Native place Dublin. C/F 40/1278 dated 10.8.1840
Aged 29. Native place Longford. C/F 40/1939 dated 23.11.1840 Ticket of Leave 1838 for the district of Parramatta
From County Down. Aged 18. Crime Vagrancy. C/F 39/2081. Dated 19.11.1839
Age 19. Native place Co. Cork. Tried Cork. Sentenced to 7 years transportation for stealing clothes. Large features.
Byrne, Ann Age 32. Native place Co. Wicklow. Died in Govt. Hospital at Parramatta 1834.
Age 26. Native place Co. Wicklow. C/F 39/2346 dated 26.12.1839
Byrne, Mary Ann
Alias Tyndall, Hannah. Age 24. Native place Dublin. C/F 40/1270 dated 10.8.1840. Married John Kelly in 1835.
Age 22. Native place Co. Kildare. C/F 39 1280 dated 13 .8. 1839
Age 20. Native place Dublin.
Age 28. Native place Queens Co.
Age 60. Native place Antrim. Crime murder. Height 5ft 8in. Ticket of Leave 1841 for the district of Penrith
Age 29. Native place Cork. Died in Parramatta Hospital 1840. Ticket of leave 1840 for the district of Goulburn.
Age 25. Native place Meath.
Age 24. Native place Kildare. Died in Parramatta Hospital 1839
Age 55. Native place Cork. C/F 39/2027 dated 30.11.1839
Age 40. Native place co. Derry. Sentenced in County Tyrone. Died in the Female Factory Hospital 1838.
Age 24. Native place Limerick. C/F 41/1178 dated 27.8.1841
Age 25. Native place Tipperary. Assigned to Thomas Dodds, Maitland C/F 39/0419 dated 18.3.1839
Age 17. Native place Cavan. C/F 40/0427 dated 2.3.1840 . Sentenced to 7 years for stealing candlesticks. Aged 17. Married William North in 1834
Age 25. Native place Monaghan
Age 26. Native place Co. Cork. C/F 1.8.1840
Age 23. Native place Dublin. Ticket of leave 1838 for the district of Campbelltown
Age 17. Native place Dublin. C/F 21.5.1839
Age 17. Native place Dublin.
Age 17. Native place Wexford.
Age 24. Native place co. Down.
Age 40. Native place Longford. C/F 23.5.1843
Age 29. Native place Co. Mayo. C/F 16 December 1839. Alias Catherine Ratigan Ticket of Leave 1839 for district of Parramatta. Native place Co. Mayo. Trade: servant
Age 22. Native place Co. Down
(Delahunt). Age 17. Native place Dublin. C/F 30/1/1846 . Ticket of leave 1840 for the district of Port Macquarie
Age 25. Native Place Monaghan. C/F 18 april 1840
Age 18. Native place Kildare. C/F 27. July 1840
Age 28. Native place Dublin. C/F 27.10.1842
Age 19. Native place Monaghan.
Age 20. Native place co. Sligo. C/F 14.10.1840
Age 33. Native place Co. Down. Assigned to CPL Wilton, Newcastle. In 1836 She was Sentenced to 14 days in the cells for drunkenness and leaving her master's residence
Age 27. Native place Londonderry.
Age 35. Native place Fermanagh. C/F 20.2.1840
Age 28. Native place Wicklo. C/F 3.12.1839
Age 30. Native place Dublin. C/F 9. August 1841. Ticket of Leave 1840 for the district of Queanbeyan
Age 19. Native place Dublin. C/F 28.4. 1843
(Griffin) Age 20. Native place Co. Kerry. C/F 26 May 1840
Hagan, Anne Age 25. Native place Monaghan. C/F 22 April 1840
Alias Hall. Age 23. Native place Co. Louth. C/F 4 November 1842
Alias Moore. Age 22. Native place Dublin. C/F 11.10.1842
Age 18. Native place Armagh. Married William Payne in 1837
Age 17. Native place Dublin. Assigned to James Hassell C/F 1 January 1840 Ticket of Leave 1838 for the district of Windsor
Age 18. Native place Armagh. C/F 18 May 1840
Age 28. Native place Co. Wicklow. C/F 20 November 1841
Age 17. Native place Dublin. C/F 19 August 1841
Alias Mary. Age 27. Native place Dublin. C/F 6 August 1841
Age 20. Native place Dublin.
Alias Eliza; Armstrong, Age 22. Native Place Co. Louth. Tried in Louth County in 1832 aged 22 years. Sentenced to 7 years transportation. C/F 40/2010 dated 9.12.1840
Kennedy , Catherine
Age 19. Native place Co. Longford. Charged in Longford, Ireland with Highway Robbery in 1832. Young daughter also came with her . Ticket of leave 1844 for the district of Hartley. Ticket of leave for the district of Bathurst 1841
Age 24. Native place Dubin. C/F 15 September 1841
Age 22. Native place Kilkenny
Martin, Bridget Age 41. Native place Co. Mayo. C/F 23.12.1839
Age 19. Native place Glasgow. C/F 5 March 1842
Age 28. Native place Fermanagh. C/F 30.10.1840
Age 25. Native place Kilkenny. C/F 10 February 1840
(Honor) Native place Roscommon. C/F 30 October 1840 Ticket of Leave 1837 Parramatta
(or McConnell) alias
SMITH Age 24. Native place Cork. C/F 5 October 1840 Ticket of Leave 1839 for the district of Windsor
Age 24. Native place Co. Longford. C/F 19 November 1839
Age 18. Native place Belfast.
Age 23. Native place Tyrone. C/F 29 November 1839
Age 32. Native place Dublin. C/F 11.5.1841
Alias Burns. Age 30. Native place Co. Lought. C/F 9 November 1840 Ticket of leave 1839 for district of Penrith
Age 19. Native place Donegal. C/F 18 February 1842
Age 15. Native place Dublin. C/F 30 September 1840
Age 20. Native place Dublin. C/F 3 December 1840
Age 35. Native place Newry. C/F 11 October 1839
Age 31. Native place Co. Down. C/F 17 June 1840
Betty (Elizabeth). Age 19. Native place Dublin. C/F 19 May 1842 married William Atkins per Earl St. Vincent 1820
Age 18. Native place Dublin. C/F 30 July 1840. Assigned to Mr. Wise in Newcastle. Charged with being in Mrs. Beattie's public house illegally. Sentenced to the cells for 14 days. John Wise was the turnkey at the gaol. 1835 26 December. Six months later Mary was assigned to John Butler Hewson. Married Joseph Wilmott in Newcastle
Murphy, Mary Ann
Age 18. Native place Dublin. C/F 23 July 1839. Assigned to S. Dark, Sydney 1837
Age 39. Native place Cavan. C/F 16 December 1839
Alias Walsh or Boyle. Age 18. Native place Roscommon. Died in Port Macquarie hospital
Age 32. Native place Dublin. Died in Parramatta Hospital 1839.
Age 23. Native place Tipperary. C/F 27 February 1840
Age 21. Native place Tipperary. C/F 17 June 1842
Age 27. Native place Dublin. C/F 10 September 1839 Ticket of leave 1837 for the district of Bathurst
Age 22. Native place Kildare. C/F 11 July 1839
Quinn, Mary Age 15. Native place Dublin. C/F 19 October 1842
Age 24. Native place Armagh. C/F 9 December 1840
Alias Mullen. Age 37. Native place Fermanagah. C/F 1 September 1838
Age 29. Native place Tipperary.Assigned to Mrs. Smith in Newcastle. Charged with absenting herself from duty. Discharged from Court 5 November 1833 . Died Parramatta hospital 8 February 1845
Age 19. Native place Dublin. C/F 17 July 1840
Age 50. Native place Co. Cavan.C/F 11 July 1839
Age 20. Native place Co. Westmeath. C/F 30 November 1840
(Rowan). Age 30. Native place Antrim. C/F 15 July 1840 Ticket of leave 1837 for Parramatta
Age 27. Native place Tyrone. C/F 26 September 1840
Age 27. Native place Roscommon. C/F 3 September 1841
Age 18. Native place Dublin. C/F 30 October 1840
Alias Mary Scully. Age 19. Native place Dublin. Died in Parramatta Hospital 6 March 1838.
Age 23. Native place Tipperary. C/F 11 Jun 1840
Shannahan, Margaret alias Greenwood. Age 17. Native place Kings co. Tried in King's County for house robbery. Sentenced to seven years' transportation. Seventeen years old, single illiterate with sallow and freckled complexion and brown hair and grey eyes. Had worked as a housemaid in King's County. After the death of her husband William Greenwood in a carting accident, and distant from her eight children , Margaret was often arrested for drunkenness and vagrancy
Smith, Bridget Age 19. Native place Co. Wicklow C/F 13 January 1840
Age 22. Native place Co. Derry. c/f 7 November 1840
Age 20. Native place Cavan. Assigned to John Brunker, Newcastle. In 1837 Mary, employed as a servant, was sentenced to 14 days solitary confinement
Age 40. Native place co. Mayo. C/F 29 May 1841
Age 36. Natove place Co. Down. C/F 11 September 1840
Age 30. Native place Kings Co., C/F 20 January 1840 Ticket of leave 1838 for Appin. Naive place Kings. Trade All work
Age 22. Native place Cork. C/F 3 May 1841
Age 25. Native place Monaghan. C/F 4 June 1841
Also Tooner or Tower. Age 30. Native Place Co. Tyrone. Tower. C/F 1 April 1839
Age 26. Native place Co. Kildare.
Age 21. Native place Cork. C/F 28 June 1841
Age 30. Native place Co. Wicklow. C/F 20 September 1839
Age 21. Native place Dublin.
Age 22. Native place Dublin.
Age 22. Native place Cork.
Notes and Links
1). George Birnie was also employed as surgeon on convict ships Asia in 1831and the Blenheim in 1837 (VDL)
2). The Caroline was one of five convict ships bringing female prisoners to New South Wales in 1833, the others being the Surry, Fanny, Buffalo and Diana. A total of 639 female convicts arrived in the colony in 1833.
3). Commutation of the Sentence of Jane Charters - on Wednesday the Sheriff of the county of Antrim received from the Lord Lieutenant a communication commuting to transportation for life the sentence of Jane Charters, who had been condemned at the Carrickfergus Assizes, to be executed for the murder of her child. The credit of this humane interposition is chiefly due to Mr. John Marshall of Donegal street, who having been on the Jury at the time of the trial suspected that insanity which he afterwards learned, had been hereditary in the prisoner's family, might have led to the commission of the act, by a series of most extraordinary exertions, procured, first, a respite, and then - the Marquis of Donegal, Colonel Pakenham, and other influential gentlemen having warmly seconded his efforts - a commutation of the sentence. -Belfast Newsletter 27 March 1832
7). Lieut. Croker Barrington was married at St. Anne's church Dublin to Margaret Emily, eldest daughter of Henry Westropp Ross Lewin in 1840. They had a son in 1841 and Croker Barrington died in August 1844 at Kilkee and was buried in the family vault at St. Mary's church. - Nick Reddan's Newspaper Extracts - Online