Convict Ship York 1831
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information about Convict Ships arriving in New South Wales, Norfolk Island
and Van Diemen's Land between the years 1788 and 1850
|Embarked: 200 men
Voyage: 156 days
Surgeon's Journal: yes
vessel: Burrell arrived 19
Next vessel: Edward
arrived 22 February 1831
Captain Daniel Leary.
France kept a Medical Journal from 11 August 1830 to 19 February
The York was fitted out at
Deptford in the summer of 1830 to receive on board 200 male
convicts for transportation to New South Wales.
17 August the soldiers of the Guard were embarked consisting of
40 non-commissioned soldiers of the 17th regiment under the
command of Lieut-Col Despard, accompanied by seven women and
five children. Lieut-Colonel Despard's wife and family arrived
as passengers, as well as Ensign Owen, Anne Forster and C.
Donohue, servant to Mrs. Despard.
The detachment generally
appeared in good health, being mostly young men with the
exception of those men of the Band of the Regiment.
Select here to find convict ships
bringing detachments of the 17th regiment.
On the 24th
August the ship having previously dropped down the river to
Woolwich, thirty convicts from the Dolphin and fifty
from the Ganymede hulks were received on board. On 27th
August thirty convicts were received at Sheerness from the
Retribution hulk and thirty boys from the Euryalus
at Chatham. On 28th August sixty men were embarked from the
Cumberland hulk at Chatham completing the number to 200
All were in apparent good health, but many
looked ill and debilitated from confinement and previous
dissipation. Before the ship left Sheerness a young man Henry
Hoes, a private soldier aged 28 was attacked with convulsions
which continued in successive fits with great severity. He was
sent to the military hospital Chatham.
The sailing order
was received on the 4th September. In going down the Channel
they encountered strong westerly winds with heavy seas causing
much sea sickness. As the winds continued the ship put into
Spithead where they were detained until 29th September. On this
day the winds were once more favourable and they departed
Spithead although in the channel they experienced contrary winds
until the 6th October.
In his General Remarks Campbell
France reported that the voyage was generally favourable and
there were few cases of a serious nature. A total of 118 were
admitted to the sick list throughout the voyage but most were of
a slight nature. The ship remained at Teneriffe for two days
where both meat and vegetables were received on board and
the water supply was completed.
On the 3rd November
convict William Garett aged 30 died suddenly. As there was no
convenient place to examine the body cause of death was not
ascertained. On the 16th October John Hayes age 17 also died.
These were the only fatal cases that occurred.
Surgeon reported: As is usual in these ships the convicts
were kept as much on deck as possible in the day time, and in
warm weather a certain number bathed every morning. The between
decks and and the men's berths were kept clean and dry in fine
weather constantly ventilated with the windsail and in moist
damp weather the stoves were in constant use for the same
purpose. The weather during the voyage was in general moderate
and favourable. In August it was fine and dry in September
strong westerly winds and much wet cloudy weather, thermometer
ranging from 60° to 70° - in October weather also cloudy and wet
- November was generally fine and moderate excepting in the
middle of the month there were several days of wet weather, with
strong winds. Thermometer from 70° to 84°. The beginning of the
month of December was fine and dry towards the end strong gales
and wet cloudy weather, thermometer from 70° to 62° degrees. In
January 1831 and the beginning of February strong winds with
hazy weather and occasional wet days. Thermometer from 57° to 62
The York arrived in Port Jackson on 7
February 1831 with 198 male prisoners. According to the Surgeon,
the convicts and soldiers were all landed at Sydney in better
general appearance and health than when they embarked on board
the York in England. A muster was held on board on 10th
February by the Colonial Secretary. 196 men were mustered, two
having died on the voyage and two had been sent to the hospital
at Sydney on arrival. The indents reveal details such as name,
age, religion, education, marital status, family, trade,
offence, when and where tried, previous convictions, sentence,
physical description and where and to whom the prisoners were
assigned on arrival. There are also occasional notes regarding
colonial crimes, deaths and pardons.
The Band of the
17th Regiment was landed on Wednesday 9th February 1831, and the
prisoners were landed Friday 18th February. It was reported that
among them were a considerable number of strong healthy
labourers accustomed to agriculture as well as several good
mechanics and tradesmen.
The burthen of the York
was 478 tons. The Sydney Gazette reported that this was
not the old York but was built in the year 1819 at Southwick in
Durham. Captain Leary, the commander, was considered an old and
respected visitor to the colony.
departed Sydney in April 1831 in company with the Edward
under Captain Gilbert. The following passengers; viz. Major
Hunt, Captain Brown and Lady, Lieutenants George Edwards,
Alexander, and Edmund Lockyer, Paymaster G. H. Green and family,
9 serjeants, 12 drummers, 7 corporals, 132 privates, 15 women,
and 39 children, of His Majesty's 57th regiment, and Lieutenant
Malin of the 13th regiment, and family, bound for Madras. Grave
fears were held for the York after it was later reported by
Captain Gilbert that there must have been a mutiny on board,
however the reports were unfounded and the York soon
returned safely to Sydney having encountered violent storms.
The York departed again in July. Lieutenant George
Edwards kept a journal of the voyage from Botany Bay to Madras
beginning on 19th July when the York departed in
company with the North Briton..............
George Edwards [Public domain], via Wikimedia Commons (Click to
Notes and Links:
Ray arrived as a convict on the York. The
State Library of Victoria hold correspondence written by him
from Appin in 1831.......Contents/Summary: Letter of Isaac Ray,
written from Appin, N.S.W., to his parents in Britain, 23
November, 1831. Includes description of economic conditions. He
mentions a petition for his release, which his parents were
going to organise. Isaac Ray obtained his freedom in July, 1838,
after having been in the service of Hamilton Hume. He was then a
Commission Agent in Sydney and also spent three years on the
California goldfields. He returned to Sydney, made some money on
the Victorian goldfields, and built a hotel in Dunolly,
Victoria, which was later destroyed by fire. He also had
associations with Maryborough and Ararat.
John Roberts was executed for murder in 1831.
Alexander Munro later settled in Singleton
Select here to find other Hunter Valley convicts
Campbell France was also surgeon on
the convict ships Asia in 1828 (VDL)
Mary Ann in 1835,
John Barry in 1839 and the
King William in
6). Return of Convicts of the York assigned between 1st January 1832 and 31st March
1832 (Sydney Gazette 14 June 1832; 21 June 1832; 28 June 1832; 5
7). Convict Ships bringing detachments of the
||Stone cutter and setter assigned to Captain Rossi in
||Sawyer assigned to
Dumaresq at St. Hillier's
||Carter and soldier assigned to
Henry Hart at Liverpool Road
||Baker assigned to Maurice
Townshend at Wollombi
||Ploughs. Assigned to Rev. T.
Reddall at Campbelltown
||Knife boy assigned to J.H. Hart
||Methodist preacher and sawyer.
Assigned to Lieut. Colonel Dumaresq at Hunter's River
||Iron founder. Assigned to J.
Prescott at Sydney
||Shoemaker assigned to Dr.
Wardell at Petersham