Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

German Vine-dressers in the Hunter Valley 1850s

Wilhelm Kirchner first arrived in Australia in 1839; however, he returned to Germany in 1847 to work as an immigration agent for the New South Wales government. He based himself in Frankfurt, arranging the publication and distribution of his promotional booklet "Australien und seine Vortheile für Auswanderer." There was a shortage of labor in New South Wales, as convict transportation had ended in 1841. His system of arranging passage for German vine-dressers, many of whom came to the Hunter Valley, was a great success. In 1851, he was appointed Consul for Hamburg and Prussia. Kirchner was married to Frances Murdoch Stirling, the stepdaughter of Alexander Walker Scott
Below is a list of ships bringing German vine-dressers and their families to the Hunter Valley together with some of the settlers who provided employment:


Some of the ships bringing German vine-dressers to the Hunter Valley:

Beulah 1849 - Captain Strubel. Arrived 4th April 1849
Catteaux Wattel - Captain Louis Meyer. Arrived 9 March 1855
Commodore Perry - Arrived April 1855
Peru - Captain Schott. Arrived 23 May 1855
Wilhelmsberg - Captain Muller. Arrived September 1855


William Munnings Arnold

Vendelin Bibo - Catteaux Wattel

Henry Carmichael - Porphyry Point

Conrad Merz - Peru
Diehl, Friedrich - Beulah
Norgardt, Peter - Beulah
Schieler, Jodocus - Wilhelmsberg
Schweicker, George - Commodore Perry
Wolf, Jacob - Peru

William Caswell - Raymond Terrace

Hahn, Joseph

George Champain - Gresford

Alois Neubeck - Peru

Edward Gostwick Cory - Paterson

Rieth, Adam - Peru
Schaefer, Jacob - Peru
Trunk, Jacob - Peru
Zolzenback, Anton - Peru

William Dangar

Schwan, Johan - Catteaux Wattel

Robert Dawson - Newcastle

Kuhn, Dominicus - Peru
Glaser, George - Commodore Perry

David Dickson - East Maitland

Falkenmayer, John
Gruber, Valentin - Peru

Henry Pelham Dutton

Beh, Charles - Peru
Bendeich, George - Peru

Jacob Gorrick - Maitland

Klein, Bathersar - Catteaux Wattel

Edwin Hickey - Osterley

Flick, Jacob - Catteaux Wattel
Flory, Henry - Catteaux Wattel
Frohmuller, Kaspar - Catteaux Wattel
Kopf, Ludwig - Catteaux Wattel
Oswald, Leonhare - Catteaux Wattel
Schalz, Joseph - Catteaux Wattel

Alfred Holden - Penshurst, Paterson

Ackermann, Michael - Catteaux Wattel
Diehm, Heinrich - Catteaux Wattel
Geiger, Andreas - Catteaux Wattel
Horn, George - Catteaux Wattel
Horn, George - Peru
Horn, Johan - Catteaux Wattel
Roos, Johan - Catteaux Wattel
Scheid, Franz - Commodore Perry
Schick, Peter - Catteaux Wattel
Trittauff, John - Peru
Weber, George - Catteaux Wattel

William Dalrymple Kelman - Kirkton

Dennewald, Jacob - Catteaux Wattel
Kramps, Christopher - Catteaux Wattel
Stecher, Frederick - Catteaux Wattel

James King - Irrawang, Seaham

Kramer, Joseph - Peru
Muller, Frederick - Peru

Andrew Lang - Dunmore

Valz, Jacob - Peru
Wittmann, Franz - Peru

Henry Lindeman

Flory, Jacob - Catteaux Wattel
Klum, Franz - Catteaux Wattel
Paff, Jacob - Catteaux Wattel
Schmitt, Anthon - Catteaux Wattel
Schmitt, Martin - Catteaux Wattel
Storck, George - Catteaux Wattel

Hugh Mackay - Anambah

Dorn, Peter Joseph - Catteaux Wattel

John McPhee - Paterson

Bick, George - Peru

William Ogilvie - Merton

Badior, Christian - Beulah
Heiligman, Anton - Catteaux Wattel
Maher, Johann - Catteaux Wattel
Stahl, George - Catteaux Wattel

Alexander Park - Lewinsbrook

Bach, Christopher - Catteaux Wattel
Gillweiler, Johan - Catteaux Wattel
Hennig, John - Peru
Hofmann, Philip - Catteaux Wattel
Jager, Wilhelm - Catteaux Wattel
Kauerfleine, Joseph - Peru
Lehr, Joseph - Catteaux Wattel
Sinz, Johannes - Catteaux Wattel

A. A. Phillips - Paterson

Klein, George - Peru
Muller, Carl - Peru
Volz, Valentin - Peru

John Pike - Pickering

Brann, Melchior - Catteaux Wattel
Horadain, Heinrich - Catteaux Wattel
Ungerer, John - Commodore Perry
Volpp, John - Commodore Perry

James Robertson - Hunter Valley

Gall, Jacob - Peru
Jaeger, John - Peru

J. Savoury Rodd

Schneider, Jacob - Catteaux Wattel

John Morrison Saunders - Maitland

Krieger, Jacob - Peru
Rembold, Christopher - Peru

Alexander Walker Scott - Ash Island

Barbeler, Jacob - Catteaux Wattell
Brand, John - Commodore Perry
Borig, Heinrich - Catteaux Wattel
Bruckmann, Sebastian - Catteaux Wattel
Frank, Jacob - Catteaux Wattel
Edstein, Joseph - Catteaux Wattel
Edstein, Nicolaus - Catteaux Wattel
Hock, John - Commodore Perry
Kauflein, Vincenz - Commodore Perry
Klug, Johannes - Catteaux Wattel
Kraft, George - Catteaux Wattel
Kramer, Clemens - Catteaux Wattel
Michel, Jacob - Catteaux Wattel
Schneider, Johan - Catteaux Wattel
Schubach, Clara - Catteaux Wattel
Weber, Johannes - Catteaux Wattel
Weidemeir, Loonhard - Catteaux Wattel

John Taylor - Lochinvar

Deger, Johannes - Catteaux Wattel
Horadam, Josef - Beulah
Janz, Johann - Catteaux Wattel
Kohler, Adam - Catteaux Wattel

William Toms - Dungog

Schreek, Peter - Peru

George Townshend - Trevellyn, Gresford

Berg, Anton - Wilhelmsberg
Frank, Phillip - Catteaux Wattel
Gaudron, Jacob - Catteaux Wattel
Holnberger, Justus - Catteaux Wattel
Konig, Herman - Wilhelmsberg
Korn, Caspar - Catteaux Wattel
Moedinger, Godfried - Peru
Stein, Michael - Wilhelmsberg
Walderbach, Johan - Catteaux Wattel

J. C. White - Hunter River

Wenzel, Sebastian - Commodore Perry

George Wyndham - Dalwood

Englert, William - Peru
Diehm, George - Peru
Halter, Franz - Commodore Perry
Muller, John - Commodore Perry
Riegler, Andrew - Peru
Schlang, Stephen - Peru
Wolf, Andreas - Peru

The following letters are extracted and translated from Australien und seine Vortheile für Auswanderer , (Australia and its Advantages for Emigrant), Wilhelm Kirchner, Edition 2., Brönner, H. L, 1850


By Joseph Horadam, vine dresser who arrived from Germany on the ship Beulah in 1849

The Beulah was the first ship to bring German vine dressers under a new bounty scheme initiated by German merchant Karl Ludwig Wilhelm (William) Kirchner. Joseph Horadam was employed by John Taylor at Lochinvar. He wrote a letter home to his friends and family extolling the advantages of living in Australia compared to their restrictive lives in Germany -

" Letter from Joseph Horadam to his brothers and others good friends in Wiesbaden
Loch Invar
August 12, 1849
Sydney New South Wales

Dear brothers and all good friends,

I hope that this letter of mine finds you all in good health like we all still are, it probably took a long time for me to write to you, but I also wanted the land first got to know a little so that I could write something real.

First I want to give you a short travel description. We went from Bieberich to Düsseldorf on the first day, the second to Arnhem, the third to Rotterdam, this last one is a very beautiful City, we had a lot of fun there and danced until night 1 o 'clock.

The next day at 1 o'clock we left for London, in a larger steamboat, we got there in 48 hours, that's when we got seasickness for the first time but it didn't last long, just one night. Arrived in London at 11 o'clock at noon, from then on we took the train to our inn. London is a very big city but very unhealthy, we were there for five days and have seen everything in it. It was interesting to see and a lot of things were bought, because there are a lot of items that you can buy much cheaper and better than in Germany, namely shoes, and other articles of clothing, these are very cheap.

Further on December 9th we saw our large sea-going ship, where we are now to make our big journey to our new fatherland, this was a three-master and was 85 feet long and 35 feet wide, the name of the ship was "Beulah," our captain spoke German, and our doctor was a German, a native of Baden, and a very good man. When we left London on the first day it was very nice weather, we had northern France on the right bank. Already into the big sea, the land gradually disappears until you see nothing but water and firmament, we already have had a strong storm, and straight headwind. For 4 weeks we sailed a route that the captain was already into 5 days, with a favorable wind, you can imagine how we were rocked around, we all had Seasickness, of course one more than the other; my wife was in five days, my two children in three days, but I was unable to cope for the first 6 weeks. But on New Year's Eve the storm died down and we got a different wind than we had. But we never had an unfavorable moment on the whole trip; the whole trip went as planned. Three children died on the ship, one of 4 years old, the other two immediately after birth. Seven children were born on the ship, and 10 couples copulated, and we lived very merrily there, because we had a whole band on our ship, almost not a day went by that we didn't dance on the ship.

What the English chef prepared, the captain gave it to us too, and we soon complained about the food that we were eating. We chose a cook for our people, Adam Bienstock from Eltville was chosen as the chef and we had everything afterwards and lived well, we had no shortage, neither of food nor of drink, there was all there enough. Then on January 6th we saw the island of Madeira, on the 9th we passed the Canary Islands, of which we saw 3, on the 15th we came to the island of St. Antony, These are two, one on the right, the other on the left, on the left we landed for 3 days, we were also allowed to go over to the land, it was namely a small village by the water, about 20 houses where because nothing but blacks lived, and still very raw, the children are all running naked, the women are naked, their shame covered, everything else about them is naked, the best thing that we got there was Porto wine a bottle for one shilling, this is 36 kr. but very good, we had a good meal again have the most wonderful fruits, oranges, apricots, and very good grapes we also got there, and also very cheaply.

Around January 28th we came under the sun line, but it is not as hot as people in Germany make it, the greatest temperature under the line was 26 degrees, and it was in three days we got through, then past the Cape of Good Hope, but we didn't see this, otherwise we only saw all kinds of fish and special birds.

On April 1st we left South Australia, you can imagine the joy we had, after such a long journey to see land of his new fatherland, on April 4th our ship sailed into the port of Jackson, this is the suburb from Sydney, doesn't have the same name, now we were in our new Fatherland, we had to stay on the ship until our rule picked us up, we're still there for another night and 1½ days.

By Steamboat, we sailed on a tributary, then another 4 hours across country and so we arrived at our farm, namely this one so big that it takes an hour to ride around it, and a very beautiful area, and a German man was Weins, the gardener was already there. There are already 28 acres of vineyards says of the same, it is the Weng von Hattenheim, and he is the first South Valais resident who has been here for 11 years. The best thing about this country is that you don't have to do any clearing to plant vineyards; this is done with a plow then tied the vines like this. When dug in Germany, they are also built with the plow, but you have to use a Hoe the canes to clean, this is the work that the vinedresser does only the cutting has to be done by hand. You don't have to spot trees like the people in Germany, these will be burned out; all the work is not done much harder than going for a walk, and how they heard that I was a gardener, I immediately came to the garden, because this is a very beautifully landscaped garden, contains approximately 6 acres, including one large part of it is laid out with a vineyard, I live at the entrance of the garden, this is a beautiful house built with bricks and is shaped like a Swiss house and has five rooms and a kitchen, everything is stately furnished.

Philip is with me who receives for the first year £10 and the same menage (quarters?) as me, and everything I raise in the garden is mine, I only need the money for a gentleman, everything else is mine, and there is no one who looks after me, what I do is right, we live better and happier now in the working day when the richest farmer in Germany was at the church consecration, for we have meat and cakes every day.

The nail and cook live 5 minutes from me, they live together in a house, but each to his own, the Stahner lives at the vineyard, this is 10 minutes from me, so we all live together. It takes us 14 hours to get to the next town and 2 hours, you can have everything, like in Germany, and you don't need to go, but you ride there, walking is not fashionable here. I have already a horse, a cow and pigs as many as I want to keep. Chickens. The cattle are very cheap, a freshly milked cow costs 11-14 guilders, a beautiful horse 20-30 guilders and all other livestock very cheap. Furthermore, the climate is very healthy, January and February are said to be the best They are hot, but not over 28 degrees, the other months are like in Germany. July and August is winter, there are only a few nights a little frost, barely freezing ice, but always warm during the day. The soil is diverse, just like in Germany, but very little rain, the dew must preserve everything, when it rains everything grows very quickly, But when it's dry, everything stands still, you can plant anything also in Germany, but viticulture will remain, the best breeding and then livestock farming.

I think in 6 years I could have saved so much that I can buy a nice estate, because you can say what it is here you earn, you can put yourself back, there is no one who gives you money demands, there are no taxes or other duties here; here you can rightly say one is a free man. I'm very sorry that Heinrich is not with me, he could live much better than in Germany and wouldn't have to work half as much as there, in fact that would be my wish for all my siblings and if there were friends with me, there would certainly be no one left in Germany I think, because in Germany the worker is not a human being, but you have to look at him like an ox that you have to watch every day. This is the truth, and provisional, what I inform you of.

Now write to me soon, something about Germany like what is happening and especially about the revolution, and generally how it is happening to you happens to everyone. Furthermore, if you feel like coming, make sure you have your bed. Take them with you, you can use these immediately, and then summer dresses because they are expensive here, you don't need shoes these aren't too expensive, and I also have to get Adolph to tell the cook Johann that Jacob wanted to come in first.

I wish you all to live as well as we live now, and I warmly welcome you all until we see each other again.

My address is: Joseph Horadam. Joseph Horadam with Mr. John Taylor in Loch Invar, Maitland New South Wales


By Friedrich Diehl originally from Oberrad near Frankfurt

Porphory point, Sydney, New South Wales
May 17, 1849.

Dear mother and siblings and all relatives!

I write to you that we all arrived safely in Sydney on April 4th, although we had of course endured a lot of fear and danger at sea and believed we would no longer see land. But finally we saw a lighthouse, and not long after that Capital of Australia, we all cheered and were all happy, that we arrived safely. There are 4 small ones on the whole ship that died, no woman or man, we weren't sick either. We all had a lot of seasickness because we had a lot of stormy winds, but we still had a good trip, we're 4 months, 6 days away.

We went from London to Sydney, but we endured a lot during that time We weren't used to the food, we didn't have any black bread or Kar toffeln (fried potato), meat being the necessity, and we threw large pieces into the Lake. Thank God, we're used to it now, we don't ask questions. Black bread, and not potatoes, we bake the bread ourselves and Loud Weisbrod, we have enough food and don't eat the rest that we don't like. The dog eats more meat in a day.

When you come you will see no poor people there, very few people at all, because there are 2 houses where we are, further away another one, etc. We have a nice house 2 apartments, it's in the forest, we can cut the wood by hand. We have it in front of the door and, thank God, it's all right for us.

Well, we wish we had my brother Hannes with us and Liese, or my old mother, could live her life in my house. If I decide that I don't need to do anything other than hold my little son and to walk in the garden, we have a beautiful garden in front of the door and a balcony in front of the house. Dear mother, my wife gave birth on January 3rd to a son happily and is now 4 months old and is already eating a piece of bread and meat from your hand and if you don't give it to him, he weeps bitterest tears. Because I still have the brains of a child never seen, my son was given the name, Friedrich Franz Julius, namely mine, yours. The ship's name was "Beulah," and he was the second child born on the ship; in total 7 children were born there. We had a good nurse and doctor.

We Germans all became very scattered; no one sees the other any more. Me and Peter Hochhut we came together, but Peter went to another ruler in 14 days, the master wanted me to stay. We live alone and don't see any Germans anymore, but still very much good people around us.

Dear mother, we hope that our letter keeps you all healthy we greet you a thousand times and if you hear that there are still people to be delivered to Australia, so send me my Hannes. Greetings to Mr. Schultheis and Mr. Pastor and Mr Partolf and all local councils. Greetings from me to my brother Hannes, Georg Milling, Wilh. Spikeberger, Georg Schmidt and Mr Decksener and tell all of society we are fine, God be it Thanks, pretty good.

Dear people, beauty is by no means only to be found in Germany. The capital Sydney is three times larger than Frankfurt. My dear Mother, I want to close and just don't wait long and write same to us. It will be a long time before you receive a letter, but it will be even longer for us. Dear mother, I won't forget you when I receive the next letter. Dear brother, if you want to come, you must tell Kirchner that you wanted to see me at Carmichael's. - The Rev Henry Carmichael, Porphory point Hunter River New South Wales. This is the address, if you write to me, use the English one Consul and have the address written on the letter. I remain your son Friedrich.

LETTER 3 - Letter from Christian Badior to his parents, siblings and - other relatives in Eltville.

Merton, September 23, 1849.
We have the letter you wrote to us Received July 22nd, and see that you are quite healthy, which is not lacking for us either, thank God, still you will probably find out that we left London on December 9th for Gravesend and we stayed there until December 11th. From there we set off through the canal in good wind. But this only lasted a few days and later we had a very strong storm and it lasted until January 1st. At Christmas we had such a storm that the water hit the deck and came all the way into our cabin down where we slept, so that quite a few people had to get out of bed. The sails were all lowered and we had to give up to the wind. Through the canal, that was our worst trip, but there was no danger to be feared.

The sea voyage is probably difficult, but not dangerous, because we had a good three-masted ship, and also a good captain and good sailors. The Ship was 130 feet long, 34 feet high, and 32 feet wide, and the three masts 120 feet. When the wind was good we had up to 32 sails on. Counting emigrants and sailors together, we were up to 200 souls. 7 children were born and 4 children died.

As far as our cook and cooking is concerned; We had from the beginning a dirty English cook who, firstly, also cooked dirty, and secondly, too little. We went to the captain and told him that we were not happy with this chef and we wanted to cook for ourselves, and he has given us permission to do so. So Adam Bienstock was chosen as cook and we all got good and enough to eat. We have meat every day, beef one day, pork the next day and then fresh preserves Beef with yellow beets, that was for soup. With the soup was served with peas and rice, the bread was like round plum cakes, but as hard as Jewish measurements and that's what it was. It tasted good, but Agnes didn't try any during the whole trip. Water we had enough and also good to drink. We all got morning Coffee and tea in the evening. We also received ¼ pound of flour every day. and raisins three times a week, so we often cooked dumplings and added the raisins and it was a wonderful meal.

On New Year's Day we got a good wind and it lasted 2 months, except in the sun line, where we had 14 days no wind and then in March we had more frequent storms. We swept along very strong, so that we covered 10-11½ English nautical miles in 1 hour lead. On January 4th we saw the first island, this one called Madeira. At Epiphany we saw another one called Palma. Jan 10th we came to a Portuguese island called St. Antony We drove there and stayed for 4 days and still got water to drink. The people who live there are all black and white-yellow, poor clothing and the children walk, until they are 14 years old, all naked, because this island is very close to the sun line. On January 5th we passed the sun line at 9 o'clock in the evening There were three wreaths of stars in the sky, we didn't see the others, because we had cloudy weather and also bad wind, so we lay quiet for 14 days. We only had 24 degrees on those days Warmth. We saw a lot of sharks and have caught quite a few, These were up to 6 feet long, then we saw others as thick as a year old ox, and others that were as long as the ports and as a hundred together. We arrived on February 14th area of the Promontory of Good Hope, but we didn't see it, We were a few hundred hours away because our captain said, There would always be a fear of such a violent storm. But it passed not a week, we always saw ships sailing past us.

March 5th We met a ship that came from Liverpool and was going to the East Indies. It was sailing so close to us that the two captains talked to each other and our captain invited the other man for lunch and he came.

On the morning of April 4th we saw the lighthouse at Sydney, we got there at 10 o'clock and we went through into the canal, which lasted until 12 p.m. We arrived there and were very happy about the beautiful view of Sydney. In this channel you will find many stone cliffs with forests and all sorts of things beautiful plants and there are lots of pleasure houses on them .

On April 9th our Lord (William Ogilvie) came on the ship and picked us up and we then came to the city of Sydney and we stayed there for 3 days. We took a good look around the city, it is very large, it resembles the city of Frankfurt and there are streets in it, from a 2 hour walk, with beautiful gas lighting. The merchant shops are lined with gold and silver and ironworks and spices. You can get anything, whatever you want, whatever is in Germany, not too expensive either. A lot of them are also Catholic and Protestant churches in it, these are very beautifully built, with Gothic Towers, and many are still being built.

April 11th We left Sydney at 10 o'clock that evening on a steamboat, and arrived 10 a.m. the next morning. Here we again went into another canal and then we came to a small town called Maitland. We stayed there for another 5 days we picked up with a cart and 8 oxen in front of it. We drove for 8 days and had to sleep in the open forest every night because the oxen walked too slowly. It only takes 50 hours from Sydney to where we are.

On the 24th of April we came to the estate our Lord at Merton, this is supposed to be a little place, but there are 12 houses and a Protestant church: it is located on a river called Hunters River. Our Lord had a little house built for us, and I and Franz live there together and we have made us a garden where we can grow whatever we want.

Our Lord has up to 12 acres of vineyard and a large beautiful Garden with many types of fruit and also eggplant trees and many Flowered plants. I have to look after this garden, and David Fittler and Mrs. Burg work in the vineyard, we are all suffered quite well because we do our work well. We don't need to work so hard like at home. We leave work more cheerful than you do. The vines are all 6 feet square, but only one Stock, these are cut in a crown shape. From cutting bog vines They didn't know anything, but we cut a lot of them because we told them there would be a lot more wine; they were just cutting knede and didn't have much wine.

I want to write to you about how the country is doing. The whole country is nothing but forest, but good fertile soil, and you can pull and plant anything, like in Germany. The gentlemen they have all divided their districts and they do not move more than they need. Most of their breeding is cattle, all of which runs on pasture. You buy an ox for 18 fl. and a cow for 9 fl. There are no potatoes, because it is too hot. There's not much to do with construction business here because the houses are mostly all of wood and thatched roofs or wooden tiles and they are not whitened nor decorated. In a city it may well be but in the country people do everything themselves. For shoemakers it's very good here because the leather is very cheap. 1 pair of shoes costs 8-10 shillings and a pair of boots cost £2. You also wrote to me about the crossing - when someone enters the country if he wants to, it is better if he does it with his own money. Because once he's there, he can go wherever he wants. But if you are recruited, you have to endure your time.

We like it very much so far and everyone would be with me, because we are not asked for any money for taxes, None for interest and none for wood, that's what we have at the door, and we live very calmly and happily. There are a lot of black people in the Country, but they don't do anything to you, they come into our house and beg for bread and meat. Then there are a lot of snakes here too, You have to be careful of these so that you don't attack them or step on them, because they are very poisonous and will bite you to death. These are 6-7 feet long.

You wrote to me that so many people from Eltville wanted to go to America. Yes, you can't blame them because the misery is too big in Germany. We hear almost every day that there is war Germany and the city of Mainz would be under siege, and the Ruffen and Cossacks were lying in the Rheingau and German soldiers fought with the Danes, so many would have stayed. But we left at the right time, because I always had fear of a soldier's life. We also heard that a ship with Germans went to America, but I hope that they are not the people you wrote to us. The address from our master is: Wilhelm Ogilvie Merton Hunters River in N. S. W.

I don't know of any news to write to you other than this: The good Lord gave us a young daughter and she is quite healthy. We had her baptized in honor of you, dear mother. She was born August 9th and baptized on the 25th. A Catholic priest came by from Maitland and baptized our baby and Francis Burg baptized his girl, who is 4 days younger. He was baptizing them as one German priest, because we already understood it in English, because we can already talk a lot. We also had a wedding, we had wine, cake and coffee, attended by many English people I must now close my letter and I hope that you will write to me.

When my 2 years are over because I can't know if I'll stay or not. I now hope that my letter would find you in good health. Greetings to all our friends and relatives Greetings from your dear son.

Christian Badior.

What I forgot in this letter is the laws of this country. These are the following. If someone steals or takes even the slightest thing, he will be liable to be sent to a penal island for many years. And if someone kills someone, he will be hanged, which is very common here. Then about the climate. It is a very healthy area because it is not cold, only in winter It's just more often fog and frost, but it's just a shame that there is so little rain. It hadn't rained in the year before we came By the time we got there it had already rained enough and they were hoping too everyone has a good year. We have come to autumn, and now we have spring. But it is supposed to be very hot in summer. But it is usually windy and there are always thunderstorms in the sky. Then I want to tell you. If someone is thrifty, something good will come: but if someone is dissolute and drinks, he has money too little. Because the drinks are very expensive. A 2 kr. bottle Brandy costs 18 kr here. Doctors cost here, if you have them but (only) 1 pound. I gave a midwife 1 pound as also did Franz Burg. We have a pretty good Lord and receive many things from him. We don't need for milk The bread we are allowed to bake ourselves and make our own yeast. I'll close with this now.

Write to me everything as it is now is with Germany
You too, dear parents and siblings, Greetings again, your dear Badoir
Sunday September 23, 1849

Australien und seine Vortheile für Auswanderer , (Australia and its Advantages for Emigrant), Wilhelm Kirchner, Edition 2., Brönner, H. L, 1850