Free Settler or Felon

Early Hunter Valley Settlers


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Hunter River - Glendon -  Darlington - Singleton - Patrick Plains - Corinda

   David Maziere and George Wyndham - Dalwood - Map 4

Dalwood - Seen as Windham on the lower right of the map above.


David Maziere departed Leith on 11th July 1822 on the Skelton and arrived in Hobart late in December 1822 before travelling on to Sydney (1).

On 11th March 1823 he informed the authorities that his means would enable him to take twenty convicts off the stores permanently and requested a grant be made accordingly (3)In correspondence dated 23 March 1823 he was informed that he would be made a grant of land of 2000 acres in any part of the colony already surveyed and assigned six convicts to work the land.(2) He selected his grant on the Hunter River and named it Annandale.

Convicts assigned to David Maziere in 1825 included:

James Featherstone arrived on the Neptune in 1818
Thomas Hayes arrived on the Lord Sidmouth
John Read arrived arrived on the Baring

These men probably helped to clear and cultivate 60 acres of paddocks and build stock yards that were completed by 1828. 

David Maziere also owned a house and land in Watt Street Newcastle as well as other land including 560 acres near George Brooks' land between Maitland and Newcastle.

David Maziere may not have spent very much time at Annandale. He purchased Major Oven's residence in Sydney in 1825 and was also called for jury duty in Sydney in this year for at least two cases. The farm was robbed by bushrangers 'Jacob's mob' in 1825 but he was not there at the time and by 1827 he was in financial difficulties and declared insolvent.

The Sydney Gazette in December 1827 recorded the following:  -

'Sales by Auction: Annandale Estate - By order of the Trustees appointed by the Supreme Court of New South Wales in the Matter of David Maziere, declared an insolvent.

All that Valuable Freehold property, called Annandale on the Main Branch of Hunter's River; consisting of two thousand and eighty acres and well known as Mr. Maziere's farm being bounded by the river for six miles on the east side and also by the river on the north and South and forming one of the most complete properties in the County of Cumberland.

Independent of the natural advantages of this fine estate, and its central situation (being equidistant from Wallis' Plains, from Patterson's Plains and from St. Patrick's Plains) Mr. Maziere has expended upon it within these two years a sum very little short of 1,000 in the most judicious and substantial Improvements in capacious stock yards, excellent paddocks, clearing one hundred acres and throwing sixty acres into cultivation, for the support of the Establishment, which may now not only be carried on free of expense but afford one of the most genteel and independent incomes in the Colony

To those Gentlemen or families arriving in the colony or to officers retiring from the Army there never was yet offered any thing so eligible or worthy of notice in that part of the settlement; and in the midst of the beautiful estates of Luskintyre and Windermere, the scenery exceed any thing even in England and the soil whether for agriculture or grazing, is not surpassed in the richest Districts of Hunter's River.

The Purchase money will be made as easy as possible, under the unfortunate circumstances under which the estate is brought to the hammer. '(4)

David Maziere continued his business as a merchant in Sydney and the estate was sold to the well connected George Wyndham who had arrived with his wife Margaret (Jay) shortly before. They re-named the estate Dalwood.

George Wyndham was born in Wiltshire, England and educated at Cambridge. He met Margaret in Italy and married her in Brussels in 1827.  Margaret was about 24 years of age and George 27 when they arrived in New South Wales on the George Home in December 1827. George and Margaret Wyndham had led cultivated lives in England however appear to have taken to their new life with enthusiasm.

George Wyndham kept a diary between the years 1830 - 1840. He was already at Dalwood when the diary began in February 1830.  In the first two years there are many entries about the weather conditions - rain, floods, thunderstorms and searing heat.  There are details of his excursions such as on the 4th May 1830 when he and John Allman travelled to Newcastle where they visited the Valley of the Palms. He returned to Dalwood on 6th May and dined with Captain Aubin that same night. On 12th September he accompanied William Ogilvie from Merton to Holdsworthy Downs and then to the Burning Mountain. They returned via Segenhoe, St. Heliers and Merton and he was home by the 18th September 1830. In March 1831 he visited Port Stephens where he called on Captain Parry and William Cromarty and in December 1831 he accompanied Rev. Wilton to the top of Tangorin. There was a steady stream of visitors as well - On 12th February 1830 Captain Dumaresq called on his way to St. Heliers; on 20th February Felton Matthew stayed with them for two days; George Townsend was a frequent visitor and John Allman William Ogilvie also. Judge James Dowling and Helenus Scott as well as James Reid, Rev. Wilkinson, William Harper, James Bettington and James Holman are also mentioned. 

Interspersed with these many social occasions were his duties to serve in Court requiring him to travel to Maitland. On the occasion of Governor Darling's visit to Maitland in January 1831 George Wyndham took lunch with the Governor and Captain Dumaresq before he set them on the road to Glendon. Despite so many social events he still managed to concentrate on rural matters....He writes of the crops he planted and also notes on the work to construct living quarters, kitchen, dining room and fencing etc., so that the day the flagging in the kitchen was finished is recorded and when he first used the mill that John Portus had constructed also noted.

There are brief notes of the convicts who came to work Dalwood, often he refers to the women by their first names, the men by their surnames - one of the first entries in February 1830 is of 'Old Mary' who was sent to the Female Factory at Parramatta for robbery; and on 25th March he notes that Anne was sent away, she being pregnant. Jane Brett arrived with a black eye on 25th April 1830; Davis was turned into the government on 7th June 1830; Louisa Heskins arrived on 7th August. On April 1831 Elizabeth Hughes was assigned and on 12th July Ann Dent arrived at Dalwood.

Kitty Spalding came to Dalwood on 12th July 1830, perhaps to work.

There are personal notes as well - such as birthdays and the day in December 1831 when Alward Wyndham swallowed a pistol bullet; and the day Mr. Glennie came to tune their piano. (8)

When their first son Alward was born in April 1828 they were already residing at Dalwood. Just fourteen months later in June 1829 Weeta was born.  George was born in 1831, William in 1832, John in 1833, Francis in 1835, Hugh in 1836, Laetitia in 1838, Alexander in 1840, Charles in 1842, Guy in 1844, Reginald in 1846 and Wadham in 1849.

George Wyndham was visited at Dalwood by Governor Sir Richard Bourke in April 1833 (6). In 1834 another visitor to the estate found George at the front of their still unfinished stone house cleaning and loading guns in readiness should they be attacked by bushrangers who were thought to be in the vicinity. Margaret was described as one of the most beautiful and distinguished personages that the visitor had ever seen.  On seeing her 'one might well think oneself in one of the most elegant parts of London, and her simple, elegant toilet was in keeping. And where do we find her? In the midst of the wilderness, in an unfinished, unadorned house in constant daily fear of robbers and murderers and surrounded by criminals.'

Unlike some of his nearby neighbours, George Wyndam's convicts were treated humanely and on the occasion mentioned above he apparently had little to fear from the bushrangers who were absconding convicts.  In June 1836 he was visited by missionaries James Backhouse and George Washington Walker who considered him 'enlightened'.

Below are some of the convicts who were assigned to George Wyndham together with the ship they arrived on and the year they were assigned to Dalwood. Search the database for more information about these convicts:

James Jenkins per Albion -  1828 John Casey per John Barry -  1828
Patrick Brown per Marquis Huntley -  1828 Obadiah Davis per Marquis Hastings -  1828
James Connor per John Barry -  1828 George Field per Marquis Hastings -  1828
Michael McLennon per Isabella -  1828 Thomas Irvine per Boyne -  1828
John Brien per Marquis Huntley -  1828 Maria Howells per Competitor -  1828
Anthony Boland per Marquis Huntley -  1828 Isabella Lloyd per Grenada -  1828
John Lunn per Larkins -  1828 Michael Lynch per Lonarch -  1828
James McGrath per John Barry - 1828 Patrick Malowney per Lonarch -  1828
John Murtagh per Dorothy  - 1828 Catherine Keen per Lucy Davidson -  1828
James Cannon per Ferguson -  1829 Joseph Coleman per Larkins -  1829
James Connolly per Ferguson -  1829 James Charlton per Mellish -  1829
James O'Brien per James Pattison -  1830 James Cousins per Ferguson -  1829
Louisa Heskins per Roslin Castle -  1830 Jane Brett per Louisa -  1830
John Robinson per Clyde -  1832 James Ware per Katherine Stewart Forbes 1830
Ann Moore per Asia -  1831 Elizabeth Hughes per Competitor -  1831
Frances Bagley per Burrell  - 1832 Herbert Lee per Clyde -  1832
John B. Allen per Clyde  - 1832 Bridget Smyth per Pyramus 1836
 
Joseph McInerny per Eliza -  1837 John Dent per Vittoria -  1837
Thomas Dewsnap per Asia -  1837 James Allen 1837 per Clyde -  1837
James Redman per Calcutta -  1837 Richard Eccles per Lord Lyndoch -  1837
John Finch per Captain Cook -  1837 Michael Gibbons per Larkins -  1837
John Hill per Lord Lyndoch -  1837 Francis Unwin per Albion -  1837
David Hodwell per Norfolk -  1837 Nicholas Curtis per Lord Sidmouth -  1837
John Meredith per Java -  1837 Francis Rourke per Calcutta -  1837
Patrick Manning per Blenheim -  1837 Grace Draper per Mary -  1840

In 1845 George Wyndham decided to leave Dalwood under a manager, and with his wife and children set out with horses, cattle and sheep, a few trusted stockmen and a string of covered bullock-wagons to cross the New England plateau to the Richmond River. After an adventurous journey he took up a property known as Keelgyrah (Kilgra, near Kyogle, named after a Wiltshire village). Stocking the property with cattle and leaving it in charge of a member of the party, they next year recrossed the Dividing Range and took up a property near Inverell, named Bukkulla. By 1847 prices had risen and the party returned to Dalwood (7)

Margaret Wyndham died on 3rd September 1870 aged 65 years and George Wyndham died three months later on 24 December 1870. The Maitland Mercury recorded his obituary:

It is with great regret that we have to announce the death of Mr George Wyndham, the intelligence of whose sudden decease will awaken feelings of painful interest among a very wide circle of friends.  Mr Wyndham enjoyed his usual good health up to about six o'clock on Saturday morning, when he was prostrated with some sudden illness, and died about an hour afterwards.

The deceased gentleman was the third son of Mr William Wyndham, of Dinton, England, who was intimately related to George Wyndham, 4th Earl of Egremont, and Baron Cockermouth. By the death of this Earl, in 1845, the peerage became extinct.

Mr Wyndham arrived in the colony about forty years ago, and lived to the advanced age of seventy one years. He was one of tho pioneers of colonization and settlement in New South Wales, and he devoted his energies to the development of the natural resources of the country. As a grazier, he discovered and occupied several blocks of country new to pastoral pursuits, and, if we mistake not, he was the first to introduce the Hereford breed of cattle to this colony, of which breed we understand there is still a very fine herd at Dalwood. Mr Wyndham was also entitled to some distinction as an importer of blood horses and other descriptions of first-class stock, and the name of Wyndham has now become almost a household word in these colonies in connection with the vintages of Dalwood and Bukkulla.

Before emigrating to Australia, Mr Wyndham travelled a good deal on the Continent of Europe, and he was, no doubt, largely indebted to the information which he then gained for the success which afterwards rewarded his intelligent enterprise as a vigneron in this colony He planted extensive vineyards in New England, and on the Hunter, and having embarked an ample fortune in wine growing, he was one of tho first to demonstrate the remunerative character of that industry. His Dalwood and Bukkulla wines obtained a silver medal at the Paris Exhibition of 1867, which was the first prize gained in European competition by Australian wines. Of Mr Wyndham's private character, it is needless that we should remark further than to observe that it was without reproach He was beloved and honoured in his own family, and his many estimable qualities have endeared his name to all who were associated with him in tho friendships and business of life (5)

 

Notes & Links:

Floods at the Hunter

Dalwood House at the Heritage Branch Website - design and construction of dwelling house and other buildings etc

Fruits of George's labour - Mike Scanlon

MAP - New South Wales. Dept. of Lands. Parish of Branxton, County of Northumberland [cartographic material] : Land District of Maitland 1932. MAP G8971.G46 svar ap

Dymphna Clark (trans. and ed.), Baron Charles von Hugel, New Holland Journal November 1833-October 1834, Miegunyah Press, 1994

Estate of the Earl of Egremont

Dalwood House - National Trust

Dalwood House 1887

Glenrock Lagoon Overview - Valley of the Palms

The life and labours of George Washington Walker, of Hobart Town, Tasmania By James Backhouse........

Lineage of William Wyndham detailing marriages between the families of George Wyndham and Henry Glennie of Singleton

 

References:

(1) Sydney Gazette 13 February 1822

(2) Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1825 Series: (NRS 937) Copies of letters sent within the Colony, 1814-1825 Item: 4/3507 Page: 438

(3) Ancestry.com. New South Wales, Australia, Colonial Secretary's Papers, 1788-1825 Series: (NRS 897) Main series of letters received, 1788-1825 Item: 4/1770 Page: 161

(4) The Monitor 27 December 1827

(5) Maitland Mercury 29 December 1870

(6) Sydney Monitor 27 April 1833

(7) Judith Wright McKinney, 'Wyndham, George (18011870)', Australian Dictionary of Biography, National Centre of Biography, Australian National University, http://adb.anu.edu.au/biography/wyndham-george-2824/text4049, accessed 13 July 2013.

(8) George Wyndham's Diary - State Library of New South Wales

 

 

 

 

 

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