Free Settler or Felon
Convict and Colonial History

Newcastle in 1825

Newspaper Extracts


The Sydney Gazette 6 January 1825

The Lord Liverpool Cutter

At the request of the Settlers at Newcastle the Lord Liverpool cutter will sail in future from Sydney on Fridays and from Newcastle on Tuesdays. By this change they will receive newspapers a week earlier than formerly and also enable them to forward produce in time for the Sydney Markets on Thursday. To prevent Mistakes her first sailing on Friday from Sydney will be on the 21st instant and from Newcastle on the 25th instant

Appointment of Commandants

General Order - His Excellency the governor has been pleased to appoint Captain Gillman of the 3rd Regiment to be Commandant at Port Macquarie and Captain Allman of the 48th Regiment to be Commandant at Newcastle.

The Sydney Gazette 13 January 1825

Absconding Convicts

We have been favoured with the following extract of a letter from Newcastle.... 'Six men have recently taken to the bush; indeed every settler is complaining of men absenting themselves without effect. Here on Sunday evening five prisoners and one soldier (the latter being on duty at the wharf) took the Commandants gig and proceeded to sea with the intention of taking the Government cutter Mars but were prevented (the night coming on with hazy weather) and made prisoner at Reids Mistake.

The Australian 13 January 1825

Compositor Needed

A Compositor - first rate wages will be given. - Apply at The Australian Office.

If the compositor who applied for work at The Australian Office a short time ago, will call again he will be employed.

The two Compositors who are said to be at Newcastle are requested to make known the circumstances under which they are remaining there.

Convict Absconders

On Saturday se'nnight, between the hours of 9 and 11 o'clock, the commandant's gig was taken from her moorings at Newcastle by seven prisoners by the connivance of the sentry on duty at the wharf, with which they got away. The government sloop Mars was in the offing at the time; and it was no doubt their intention to seize her, but she had fortunately stood out to sea, in a heavy squall from the N.E.; in consequence of which, these desperadoes were under the necessity of running before the wind. On the following morning the runaways were missed at Newcastle; and Lieutenant Owen, commanding the detachment of the Buffs at that station, with the utmost promptitude, caused a whale boat to be manned by prisoners of the crown, in which he proceeded, accompanied by two soldiers of his company, in pursuit of the runaways. In the course of Sunday evening he landed at Reid's mistake, (about eighteen miles south of Newcastle) and found on the beach five oars belonging to the gig. He proceeded inland in search of the fugitives, and after a weary march, most part of the night soon after day break on Monday morning, he fell in with them, and secured the whole without bloodshed and conveyed them to Newcastle, where they are now in safe custody. Lieutenant Owen was prompt and persevering in the pursuit, on this occasion. It is supposed that the runaways swampt the boat when they landed, as part of the wreck of her has since been taken into Newcastle, by the natives from Reid's Mistake.

The Sydney Gazette 20 January 1825


Perhaps by the ready insertion of the Coal River Emigrant our reputation and popularity may become re established on the Banks of Hunters River! These are appendages that 'an editorial we have no pretensions above a week. Editors bear a striking resemblance to a thermometer - they rise and fall! It is, indeed, a rare quality when, like the barometer, they are not given to change!

To The Editor of the Sydney Gazette - Sir, Neither your reputation, nor your popularity, has been increased on the banks of Hunter's river, by your notice to Correspondents in the Gazette of the 6th instant. The patriotic services of 'The Free Inhabitant of Newcastle are duly appreciated; his principle is that of a genuine soldier, not to be driven or seduced from his post until regularly relieved; and the ruling impulse of his mind, repelling inroads on his privileges, gives full security that one, so delicately jealous of undue interference with his own impunities, is the most unlikely person to infringe on others. Witnessing the evil effect of a jumble of civil and military officers, he has applied his humble but zealous exertions to the purpose of inducing a line of demarcation. The high authority, who, with innumerable precedents is in his own person vested with magisterial and military sway respectively, unquestionably is minutely careful that the sacred offices of the Constitution, and the details of the discipline of the constitution's military forces, should not amalgamate. The 'Free Inhabitant' very justly seems to think that you ought to be equally delicate; and, with the view of prevailing upon you to preserve salus popouli suprema lex from a possibility of the injury which a notion of servitude must occasion, suggests your leaving the truly honourable profession of arms in its proper sphere. With proper independent feelings he tells you, the British free holders do not allow themselves to be commanded, and that the station of the King's colours is not the place to deposit the records of civil processes, or the history of the convicted felons of Great Britain. Placing passages from his letter, and your tirade in juxta position, would at once establish your fallacy, but it is needless qui currit legat. A most incorrect description has been propagated of this Community; it is said we are formed of jarring elements, which require the arms of the laws to be strengthened by a few scales of military armour; with as much truth might it be asserted, that we are all Buccaneers. The exact reverse is the fact, there are not three grantees of land in this extensive range who ever came under the cognisance of the law and I defy the resources of statistical information to point out any part of the Community of the truly English colony, more truly English than the counties of Northumberland and Durham. We are chiefly gentlemen who emigrated under the auspices of his Majesty's Government and require only the protection of our rights. Our air probably would have been impregnated by mias mata, which might have infected the rising generation with a rather prevalent disease by clipped servility. The 'Free Inhabitant' has tried to arrest its progress, and the suppression of his loyal but firm principle would be a public injury; he is, I hope, too resolute to allow that virulence, to which a love of 'virtuous liberty, worth a whole eternity of bondage; subjects him to disturb his course, I am Sir your obedient servant A Coal River Emigrant.

London Mission Society

The Gentlemen of the Deputation (the Reverend Daniel Tyrman and George Bennett, Esq) with the Rev. Mr. Threlkeld, visited the settlement of Newcastle on Friday last, on the Lord Liverpool. These Gentlemen, we understand, intend taking a journey as far as Bathurst, and going from thence to Wellington Valley with the view of ascertaining the most adapted spot to enter upon a Missionary undertaking. They also propose visiting the sister Colony (Van Diemen's land) by the earliest opportunity.


The Sydney Gazette 3 February 1825


Mr. Thomas Carr intends proceeding immediately to Newcastle for the purpose of commencing a brewing business, he having obtained from His Excellency the Governor permission to establish a concern there; and begs to assure the public that his beer, shall be of the very best quality and made from Malt and hops only, every other ingredient being excluded.

London Missionary Society

Sir Thomas Brisbane, our excellent Governor, with his usual promptitude in such cases, has directed to be made over, at the instance of the London Deputation, in trust for the natives exclusively 10,000 acres of land, in the vicinity of Reid's Mistake, which lies between Port Jackson and Newcastle, and about 40 miles from the heads. In the event of the Mission at any time being abandoned which we think unlikely the whole of the land, in that case only will revert to the Crown. We understand that the Rev. Mr. Threlkeld, the Gentleman intended to enter upon this Missionary field, will commence his labours as soon as the land is located.

The Australian 24 February 1825

Convicts to Newcastle

From the 1st January 1819, to the time when Newcastle, it was understood, was no longer a penal settlement, that is to say, to the 31st December 1823, there have been transported to that settlement from Sydney, 2447 persons, of whom there were
Englishmen 1,408
Irishmen 693
Scotchmen 75
Welshmen 21
Natives (white)22
Foreigners 81.
Total 2300 men
Englishwomen 70
Irish 64
Scotch 11
American Woman 1
Native woman (white) 1
Total 147 women Total 2,447 persons.


The Sydney Gazette 10 March 1825

Police Department

Government and General Orders Colonial Secretary Office 9 March 1825. - The Governor has been pleased to approve the following appointment: Francis McNamara (free) per Medina Constable at Newcastle vice Campbell dismissed for improper conduct.

Absconding Prisoners

Principal Superintendent's Office, 8 March 1825

The undermentioned Prisoners having absented themselves from their respective employment and some of them at large with false certificates, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody:

Thomas Williams per Canada aged 24; Native place Staffordshire; hazel eyes, brown hair; dark sallow complexion. Absconded from the miner's gang, Newcastle

Aaron Solomon per Indefatigable; absconded from the Parsonage Garden, Newcastle

William Forster per Elizabeth aged 45; Native place Durham; hazel eyes, black hair; dark ruddy complexion; absconded from Miner's gang, Newcastle

William Finnegan per Isabella (1823); Aged 19 from County Monagh. grey eyes, dark red hair, red freckled complexion, Absconded from the miner's gang, Newcastle.

The Australian 24 March 1825

Publican's Licences

Licences for the sale of Ale, Beer, and Spirits have been issued to the following persons:
Allan - Newcastle
Francis Beattie - Newcastle
John Smith - Newcastle

The Sydney Gazette 31 March 1825

Absconding Prisoners

Principal Superintendent's Office

The undermentioned Prisoners having absented themselves from their respective employment and some of them at large with false certificates, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody:

William Bryan per John Barry; aged 22; native of Cork; grey eyes, brown hair, fair complexion; absconded from Government employment at Newcastle

Joseph Collins per Medway. Absconded from Government employment at Newcastle

George Cain or Kean per Elizabeth; aged 20; native of Gloucestershire; dark eyes. Absconded from government employment at Newcastle.


The Australian 7 April 1825

Government Contracts

Newcastle - Persons desirous of contracting to supply the Military, Hospital and Prisoners in gaol at the place with bread from 25 April 1824 to 24 December 1824, are requested to send their offers in writing to this office on or before 20th day of April. W. Innes, Storekeeper, Commissariat Office, Newcastle.

The Sydney Gazette 7 April 1825

Aboriginal Trackers

Several instances have occurred, during the present sittings of the Court, as on innumerable former occasions since the founding of the colony, of the advantages which the Police may draw from these poor people; in the neighbourhood of Newcastle particularly they have rendered the most important benefits to the Crown, and to Society. In the present state of the law they cannot, indeed, be admitted as witnesses in Court; but they are excellent instruments out of Court, for the detection of offenders. In considering how a reward should be given to these four aborigines it appeared, in the above mentioned case, most prudent to refer them to the Magistrate of the district (Liverpool), as a gift on the spot would have the best effects; and, as by a late regulation immediate means are entrusted to the Justices for such purposes. We understand that a circular letter has been written to all the magistrates, authorising them to provide the costs of any pressing police duty requiring increased vigour on particular occasions for the suppression of crime. They are to draw on the Colonial Treasurer direct, for such small sums as may be occasionally required. This will, for the present provided a strength adequate to the increase of criminals in various parts of the Colony; and, after a few months, means will be furnished in the cases thus to arise, by which an exact opinion may be formed of the permanent increase of constables required in particular districts.

With regard to the aborigines, they have always been more or less useful to the Police; although, in some instances, their services have been miserably ill requited; and it may be expected that the numerous Magistrates, now spread over the Colony, each pursuing for a time the course dictated by his own experience and judgement on the particular mode of employing and paying them, will be able to produce materials from which hereafter fixed rules of proceeding may be made in order to ensure economy and efficiency in this service.

The Australian 14 April 1825

The Church

At the settlement at Newcastle divine service is now performed at the prisoners barracks instead of at the church. Upon a recent survey of the latter building it has been ascertained that the steeple is so much out of the line of perpendicular, that it is expected the first heavy gale of wind will bring it to the ground. This building is one of those flimsy erections, ran up for show, without any regard to durability. It answered however, the purpose of the planner, and obtained for him a panegyric, which he did not deserve.

The Sydney Gazette 28 April 1825

Commissariat Department

The following tenders of Supplies for His Majesty's magazines have been accepted and are published for the information of those concerned:

Deliverable at Newcastle: Wheat

William Evans 200 bushells at 8/- per ton

John Eckford 100 bushells at 9/- per ton

Isaac Elliott 100 bushells at 9/- per ton.

Deliverable at Newcastle: Maize

John Cory 100 bushells at 5/6- per ton

John Cory 80 bushells at 5/3 per ton

R.C. Dillon 300 bushells at 5/- per ton

James Reid 200 bushells at 3/6 per ton


The Sydney Gazette 5 May 1825

Absconding Prisoners

Principal Superintendent's Office The undermentioned Prisoners having absented themselves from their respective employment and some of them at large with false certificates, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody:

James Bryan, per Prince Regent; aged 22; Native of Cork; hazel eyes, brown hair, dark pale complexion; absconded from the gaol gang at Newcastle

Henry Ellis per Morley; aged 26; native of Essex; blue eyes, brown hair, fair pale pock pitted complexion; absconded from the gaol gang at Newcastle

Phillip Hughes per Guildford; aged 30; native of London; blue eyes, light brown hair, sallow complexion; absconded from the gaol gang at Newcastle

James Johnson absconded from the gaol gang at Newcastle

William Kirk per Daphne; aged 34; native of County Down; hazel eyes, brown hair, dark ruddy complexion; absconded from the gaol gang at Newcastle

William Toole per Guide (1818). Absconded from the gaol gang at Newcastle.

William Wheatley per Batavia; aged 34; native of Gravesend; hazel eyes, brown hair, dark ruddy complexion; absconded from gaol gang at Newcastle.

The Sydney Gazette 12 May 1825

Police Office, Sydney

William Toole, prisoner of the Crown, a runaway first from Port Macquarie and afterwards from Newcastle, to which settlement he had been sentenced by a Criminal Court for the term of his natural life - sentenced to Port Macquarie or elsewhere for the term of original sentence.

Absconding Prisoners - Principal Superintendent's Office The undermentioned Prisoners having absented themselves from their respective employment and some of them at large with false certificates, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody:

James Cody per Guildford; aged 32; native of Dublin; black eyes, brown hair dark pale complexion; absconded from gaol gang at Newcastle

Thomas Edwards per Recovery; aged 33; native of Glamorgan shire; dark eyes, black hair, dark sallow complexion; absconded from gaol gang at Newcastle

Charles Fagan per Countess of Harcourt; aged 22; native of County Kildare; grey eyes, brown hair, fair freckled complexion; absconded from the gaol gang at Newcastle.

Sam Hart per Castle Forbes aged 22; native of County Donegal; hazel eyes, brown hair, fair ruddy complexion; absconded from gaol gang.

John McAuliff per Dorothy; aged 27; native of County Cork; hazel eyes, dark brown hair, ruddy complexion; absconded from the gaol gang at Newcastle

Bryan O'Neal or Arthur per Minerva; aged 50; native of County Tyrone; grey eyes, brown hair, fair pale complexion; absconded from the gaol gang.

The Sydney Gazette 19 May 1825

William Powditch Opens Store

To Hunter's River Settlers - William Powditch, having himself experienced great Inconvenience from the Want of a Store or General Warehouse at Newcastle for the supply of the Hunter's River Settlers, has determined upon Opening a House of that Nature, immediately upon his allotment at Newcastle where he hopes the business will be conducted with such Attention, liberality, and undeviating fairness, as to ensure the support of the numerous and respectable body of settlers in that fine District.

The House will receive all kinds of marketable produce at the current prices of the Day, according to their quality, for any supplies that may be required, which will be furnished at the Sydney Prices, with the necessary Additions of freight and incidental charges.

Every Facility and Accommodation will be afforded the Up country Settlers, by forwarding Letters or Parcels, and storing their Property until an Opportunity occurs for forwarding it and every Security and Assistance the Establishment will admit.

The Business will be conducted by Mr. Frederick Boucher, under the Firm of Powditch and Boucher.

N.B. - Good Wheat will always be taken for cash if required.

The Australian 19 May 1825

The Cutter Eclipse

The Eclipse cutter at nine o'clock in the Morning was cut from her moorings in the harbour of Newcastle, by the prisoners employed in lading her with coals. The men had irons on at the time. Binding the master and the sailors, and dropping off' their irons were the work of an instant. Surely this must Have been an act of gross neglect on the part of those whose duty it was to look after the prisoners. We hope Government will not hesitate for an instant to send a vessel after The Pirates; and afford every compensation to the owners.

The Sydney Gazette 26 May 1825

Mission Society

The Reverend Mr. Threlkeld, of the London Missionary Society, with his wife and family, has now entered into his Missionary work, having left Sydney for Newcastle about three weeks. Mr. Threlkeld is not yet settled on the scite fixed on as the scene of his future labours, but contemplates no delay in pursuing the object in view, namely that of rendering temporal and everlasting benefit to the thousands of the sable race that surround us on every hand. The Reverend Gentleman seems to be in high spirits, and is determined sedulously to devote himself anew to that work, in which he has already expended the best years of his life.


Left for Newcastle May 24 - the cutter Lord Liverpool


The Sydney Gazette 9 June 1825

Assault by a Native

Supreme Court Friday 3rd June 1825 Devil Devil alias Bumblefoot, an aboriginal native, indicted for a violent assault on Jeremiah Buffy at Newcastle on 19 September last. Guilty. Remanded.

Police Department

Government and General Order Colonial Secretary's Office 8th June 1825

The Governor has been pleased to approve of the following appointments: In the town of Newcastle, Nicholas Healy per Minerva 1819, to be constable in the room of (Edward) Gaynor dismissed for dishonesty.

Absconding Prisoners

Principal Superintendent's Office The undermentioned Prisoners having absented themselves from their respective employment and some of them at large with false certificates, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody:

Marmaduke Burrows per Grenada; aged 36; native of Leeds; hazel eyes, brown hair, bald, dark sallow complexion; absconded from service of Richard Binder at Newcastle

Edward Cockrane per Asia; aged 26; native of Kings County; blue eyes, brown hair, fresh complexion; absconded from service of E. Cory at Newcastle

Patrick Carr (or Fitzpatrick) per Asia; aged 25; native of County Meath; hazel grey eyes, black hair, fresh pock pitted complexion; absconded from service of E. Cory of Newcastle

Edward Donnelly per Earl St. Vincent; aged 31; native place Malta; ; brown eyes, dark brown hair, brown complexion; absconded from service of E. Cory of Newcastle

John Duck per Malabar; aged 26; native place Somerset shire; hazel eyes, dark flaxen hair; fair pale complexion; absconded from service of S. Harris of Newcastle

William Fry per Henry; aged 19; native of London; blue eyes, brown hair, brown complexion; absconded from service of John Smith at Newcastle

Thomas Head per Ocean; aged 25; native of Burwash; grey eyes, flaxen hair, fresh complexion; absconded from Mr. Mudie of Newcastle

George Kinsela per Isabella; aged 28; native of Dublin; dark eyes, black hair; fair freckled complexion; absconded from road gang at Newcastle.

Thomas Kelly per Asia; aged 20; native of County Carlow; grey eyes, sandy hair, fresh freckled complexion; absconded from Edward Cory at Newcastle

William Smith per Countess Harcourt; aged 25; native of Lancashire; grey eyes, brown hair, sallow pale complexion; absconded from road gang at Newcastle

John Yates per Eliza; aged 24; native of Lithgow; hazel eyes, light brown hair, fair sallow complexion; absconded from James Mudie at Newcastle.

The Sydney Gazette 16 June 1825

Coast Road

Among the many improvements called for in the Colony, it has struck us, as most essential, that a means of communication should be opened, by road, to Newcastle, and the settlements at and near Broken bay. That fine settlement is almost unknown from the present want of ferries and roads; and we have no hesitation in saying that Broken Bay will, ere long, be one of he most important districts in this Colony. Settlers, newly arrived, are beginning to cry out - there is no land while millions of acres lie entombed upon the seaside. In America the finest land taken possession of, is generally that contiguous to water carriage, and with the convenience of good harbours. The North east arm of Broken bay is one of the finest enclosed pieces of water in any Colony, resembling, it is said, in extent and smoothness, the beautiful water of Loch Lomond, in Scotland; and when the day arrives, which we trust is not far distant, when steam boats will ply from harbour to harbour along the shores of Australia a grant of 1000 or 2000 acres in the neighbourhood of Broken bay, Reid's Mistake and Port Stephens will be a fortune.

The Sydney Gazette 23 June 1825

Absconding Prisoners

- Jacob's Irish Brigade

Principal Superintendent's Office The undermentioned Prisoners having absented themselves from their respective employment and some of them at large with false certificates, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody:

Patrick Clinch per Isabella; aged 28; native of Longford; hazel eyes, brown hair, pale little freckled complexion; absconded from Vicars Jacob at Newcastle

John Green per Fame; aged 25; native of Lancaster; grey eyes, brown hair, sallow complexion; absconded from gaol gang at Newcastle

John Macguire per General Hewitt; aged 36; absconded from gaol gang at Newcastle

Robert Sayer per Asia; aged 36; native of Norfolk; hazel eyes, brown hair, freckled complexion; absconded from Mr. Mudie at Newcastle. Accused of robbery

John Simpson per Shipley; aged 23; native of Eversham; hazel eyes, dark flaxen hair, florid complexion; absconded from service of Mr. Mudie at Newcastle.

The Australian 23 June 1825

Port Charges

The enormous rate of port charges, in the shape of 'pilotage and harbour dues', demanded on colonial vessels, is most severely felt by the owners of these vessels. The charges on a vessel, which lately performed a voyage hence to Port Macquarie, and touched at Newcastle on her way back, amounted to only 21 19s 3d.

Shipping - The Lord Liverpool

The Lord Liverpool sailed from Newcastle on Sunday week, in the afternoon, with the wind at W.S.W. She returned next day in a most woeful plight; and it is a matter of surprise to all who saw her that she ever reached the port. Had she not got in, when she did, she must have foundered during the night. On the evening of Sunday, after she sailed, the wind shifted to S.W. and S.S.W. off course she could only stand to the Eastward. She had reached as far as Bird Island, about 5 a.m. and was making a board off the land, a heavy hollow sea running, and she dashing through the water under a closed reefed mainsail, fore sail, and third jib, when a tremendous sea struck her on the starboard quarter and beam, carrying away the bulwarks fore and aft; also making a clean sweep of the companion, and forcing about one half of the larboard bulwark. The stancheons along both the gunwales were broken short off, and two casks of water swept overboard. Mr. Young, the Mate was knocked into the lee scuppers, and got a severe contusion on the temple. The pump was carried away and rendered entirely useless. The cutter lay like a log, as many tons of water had found way down the companion, and in at the sky light over the great cabin. She was full of passengers. Those who occupied the lower tier of cabins were obliged to get out, as they were full of water. She had got as far to the Southward as Broken Bay, when the sea struck her. Had it occurred 2 hours sooner, she must have been lost.


An unfortunate boat, from the southward tried to get into anchorage on the same night at Newcastle; but was unable to round Nobby's, and bore up for Port Stephens - shortly after she carried away her mast; and, at sunset, she was seen lying like a log on the water. It blew furiously till midnight; and in all probability she foundered in the gale.


The proprietors of the Lord Liverpool Packet have taken up the schooner Newcastle, for the purpose of employing her in the Newcastle trade during the period which will necessarily be required in repairing the damages which the cutter sustained in the late heavy gale of wind.

The Sydney Gazette 30 June 1825

Absconding Prisoners

Principal Superintendent's Office

The undermentioned Prisoners having absented themselves from their respective employment and some of them at large with false certificates, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody

Hugh Carroll per Dick; aged 24; native of County Kildare; grey eyes, brown hair, sallow complexion; absconded from Mr. Ogilvie at Newcastle

Patrick Connell per Prince Regent; aged 33; native of County Cork; hazel eyes, dark brown hair, fair ruddy complexion; absconded from Prisoners barracks at Newcastle

Thomas Eastow per Countess Harcourt; aged 26; native of Colchester; grey eyes, flaxen hair, pale pock pitted complexion; absconded from Robert Lowe Esq., at Newcastle

Thomas Flood per Ann and Amelia; absconded from the General Hospital at Newcastle

William Murphy per Minerva; aged 24; native of Limerick; hazel eyes, brown hair, fair ruddy complexion; absconded from the road gang at Newcastle.

Shipwreck of the Nereid

The Cutter Nereid, Captain Forbes, left this port on the 18th instant, upon a trading voyage, bound to Manilla, Singapore, and other places. Captain Forbes had occasion to put into Newcastle in his boat, leaving the vessel outside in charge of Mr. Brimer. The flood tide setting in, prevented the boat leaving Newcastle till half past two in the morning at which time the cutter was in safety, having fired a swivel off the lighthouse, and then tacked to sea. Captain Forbes proceeded to join the vessel at three o'clock and when he got out to sea, could perceive nothing of his fine little barque. After pulling about till six in the morning he returned to the signal post, and remained in a state of anxiety till near noon, when one of the men came to the settlement with information that the vessel was stranded about ten miles to the Northward of Newcastle. Every assistance was promptly afforded by Captain Allman the commandant; and Captain Forbes proceeded to the wreck. The vessel was discovered to be stranded, the mast gone, and the decks stove in, and bilged. The mate reported that he stood off the light house about three miles, and laid the vessel to with the wind N.E. expecting the Commander on board; when it was ascertained, upon the approach of day light, that the vessel was within the influence of the ground swell; and the land not perceptible as the weather was quite hazy. Before the anchor could be let go, though all was ready, the breakers rolled in upon her, and quickly drove her on shore; the third sea stove in the decks. Very little if any thing was saved from the wreck. The vessel is insured; but Captain Forbes, has by this second misfortune, lost somewhere about 500 of personal property.

The Australian 30 June 1825

Loss of the Nereid

This fine little vessel, under the command of Mr. Duncan Forbes, late of the brig Minerva, left this port in the evening of the 19th instant, bound to the northward, on a speculative voyage. On the following day( Monday) she reached as far as Newcastle, and there being but little wind the master landed there in his own boat. In the course of the night he put off from shore with the intention of joining his vessel, but not having been able to fall in with her, he retuned on the following morning to Newcastle - the cutter not in sight. It was at first imagined that a party of prisoners had seized the cutter and taken her off, but in the course of the morning of Tuesday she was discovered on the beach in a deep bight, about eight miles north of Newcastle - a total wreck, with her mast gone, and her deck burst up. She has since gone all to pieces, and the whole of her cargo, with the exception of two casks of meat, is lost. A small trunk, containing some important papers very fortunately floated on shore and was saved. None of the crew saved any thing except the clothes which they had on at the time the vessel got on shore. It appears that in consequence of the weather being very hazy, with scarcely any wind, and a strong tide setting into the bay the vessel got into the heavy rollers, which extend a considerable distance out, before the people on board were conscious of the danger into which they had fallen; and before an anchor could be let go, the vessel was struck by a roller, which drove her with amazing velocity on the beach. The master was severely bruised and almost drowned by the upsetting of his boat in attempting to beach her near the wreck at which place the surf is said to have been truly awful. The vessel and cargo are insured, but Capt. Forbes, individually sustains a heavy loss; his private trade, his clothes, stock for a long voyage, chronometers, nautical instruments, books charts papers in fact everything belonging to him as well as those belonging to the crew, being totally lost. the first mate had stood on and off during the night until the time she went ashore which was about half past two. He had tacked and was standing with the vessel's head to the N.E. agreeably to instructions left with him by Mr. Forbes; but the tide being stronger than the wind, and the night being dark, the mate was not aware of her drifting. The wreck covers the beach for a distance or twelve or fourteen miles.


On Monday last the brig Governor Phillip returned from Newcastle, where she was compelled to wait for a cargo of coals, from the 25th ultimo, to the 25th instant. She has brought to Sydney 210 tons of coals, and a quantity of cedar. This fine brig has recently been purchased by some of our enterprising merchants with a view of converting her into a regular and constant trader between China and this Colony.


It would seem that either the consumption of coals here (Sydney) is rapidly increasing or that the quantity at present imported is not so considerable as in former days; for government are issuing to the public officers, etc. from the dock yard, wood instead of coals for fuel; and the price of coals is much higher now that it was some months past. It strikes us that double the numbered men at present working the coal mines at Newcastle might be very advantageously employed in that important department.


The Sydney Gazette 7 July 1825

Absconding Prisoners

Principal Superintendent's Office

The undermentioned Prisoners having absented themselves from their respective employment and some of them at large with false certificates, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody

George Brown per Fortune; aged 34; native place Venice; blind of left eye, black hair, pale complexion; absconded from Newcastle

Patrick Connell, per Prince Regent; aged 33; native place County Cork; hazel eyes, light brown hair, fair ruddy complexion; absconded from prisoners' barracks at Newcastle

David Jones per Eliza; aged 41; native of Staffordshire; hazel eyes; light brown hair, dark ruddy complexion; absconded from Newcastle

James Johnstone per Prince Regent; absconded from gaol gang at Newcastle

Daniel Kain per Minerva; aged 27; native place Waterford; grey eyes, light brown hair, fair pale complexion; absconded from Newcastle

Thomas Kain (William) per Tottenham; absconded from Newcastle

Isaac Patterson per Dromedary; absconded from Newcastle.

The Sydney Gazette 21 July 1825


Advices from Newcastle report that bushranging in that neighbourhood is carried on to a great extent. The whole of Mr. Jacob's Irish Brigade (once so ludicrously described by the gentleman) have absconded. Mr. Harris's house was robbed in his absence of everything valuable.

The Australian 24 July 1825


The Cutter Lord Liverpool - The repairs of this little vessel have just been completed. She sailed for Newcastle on Monday morning last, with ten cabin, and twenty two steerage passengers, and a full freight.


The quantity of coals which was procured from the mines at Newcastle, during the twelve months that Captain Gillman commanded there, although he was limited to 120 men, exceeded the quantity procured in any preceding year. It is expected that the quantity which will be procured in all this year, will equal, if not exceed that of any former year. Another coal pit is now being sunk at Newcastle, so that double the present quantity will ere long be procured.


A turtle of the logger head species, weighing upwards thirteen cwt. was recently caught at Port Stephens by some of the military at that station.

The Sydney Gazette 28 July 1825


We are called upon to state that the report in the last Australian relative to all those on board being asleep when the Newcastle drifted off her moorings in the Hunter River on the night of Saturday last, is not by any means true and several other parts of that statement are also contradicted.


The Sydney Gazette 4 August 1825


Patrick Reiley per Castle Forbes, Patrick Clinch per Isabella and Lawrence Cleary per Mangles, three bonded servants belonging to the estate of V. Jacob Esq., at Hunter River, after committing various depredations accompanied by acts of atrocity effected their escape; a reward of twenty dollars per man is hereby offered for their apprehension. A.B. Sparke.

Absconding Prisoner

Principal Superintendent's Office The undermentioned Prisoner having absented himself from his employment, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody

Patrick McNally, per Isabella; aged 23; native of County Meath; grey eyes, brown hair, sallow little pock pitted complexion; absconded from the road gang, Newcastle.

The Australian 4 August 1825


Recent advices from the Settlement at Newcastle state that the bushrangers in that neighbourhood are increasing in numbers, and are continuing their outrages with a good deal of success.

Since the publication of our last statement, respecting these desperadoes, five men have absconded from Mr. Boughton's farm, at Paterson's Plains; for the purpose it is supposed, of joining Mr. Jacob's men. One man has run from Mr. Cobbs farm, and one ( and only one) from the town of Newcastle; so that, if they coalesce, they will form a desperate gang, of eleven, all well armed; and who declare they will never be taken alive. It appears that Captain Allman has done everything in his power towards getting the banditti taken. Eight soldiers accompanied by several black natives, have been sent in pursuit of them.

Lieutenant Hicks's farm has been visited by them, and stript of provisions, fire arms and ammunition, Mr. H's watch, and in fact everything worth having. Mr. Maziere's overseer has had to go to Newcastle for a supply of provisions, he having been robbed by the bushrangers, of everything except the clothes he wore; and Mr. McClymant's farm house has also been plundered by them. On the 26th ult., subsequently to the robbery at Mr. McClymant's the bushrangers were traced by a party of natives to a brush above Mr. Cory, senior's farm at Paterson's Plains; and a party of soldiers stationed there, accompanied by three constables, immediately went in pursuit of them. Messrs. Frankland, Boughton and E. Cory are also with the soldiers; and it is to be hoped their efforts will be attended with success.

(Further particulars from our Correspondent of the 21st ult)

'In addition to my letter of the 9th instant, I have heard Mr. Jacob's men plundered the hut of Mr. Maziere, and took from his men pork, flour, and arms. This morning Mr. Hicks, my neighbour, two miles off came to inform me that Mr. Jacob's men and two others, all armed, took him by surprise a little after seven o'clock yesterday evening. Mr. Hicks has been in the habit of visiting his barn after sunset to ascertain if all is correct; on his return yesterday evening, on turning the corner of his house four men armed appeared, to resist was impossible, as he found during his absence they had secured his men, entered the house, took his watch, blunderbuss and musket. Mrs. Hicks was greatly frightened being en famille, one of the marauders threatened to shoot her; they did not leave him a charge of ammunition, carried all off, in addition to a quantity of wearing apparel. Mr. Hicks described them as well armed with bayonets, pistols and muskets. Cannot you persuade Government to awake from their long state of drowsiness; and not sent constables with broomsticks instead of fire arms? My turn will come next, I have been threatened. When Captain Allman heard of it, he sent a corporal and three soldiers in pursuit.'


The residents of Paterson's Plains are adopting all the means within the power of private individuals to repress bushranging. At a meeting on the 21st ult. subscriptions were entered into, for the purpose of rewarding persons apprehending runaways. The system of rewards proceeding from such a quarter may be of considerable service as auxiliaries to other measures; but without the effective assistance of government, aided by the personal zeal of all the Magistrates, the real and permanent good produced must necessarily be inconsiderable. Tobacco and blankets may now and then induce the aboriginal natives to bring in a stray bushranger; but to that effect they will be limited. The proposing such a plan is important, in as much as it displays the disposition which prevails to promote the views of the Colonial administration on the subject and second any feasible scheme put in practice by authority.

The reign of terror appears to be commenced in the District of Newcastle; for, we are informed that Mr. McClymant is afraid to remain on his farm, and has actually come up to Sydney with his wife, to avoid the dangers arising from Bushranging.

Commissioner of the Supreme Court

Captain Allman, of the 48th Regiment, and Commandant at Newcastle has been appointed by the Chief Justice, a Commissioner of the Supreme court for taking affidavits and special bail.


We understand that a clergyman is shortly to be stationed at some distance up Hunter's River, and that a church is forthwith to be erectedin a suitable situation, for the convenience of the rapidly increasing population of that part of the country.


There seems to be a fatality attending everything connected with the unfortunate dandy cutter Nereid. In the afternoon of Saturday the 23rd ult., in the height of a gale of wind, Mr. Boucher, of the firm of 'Powditch and Boucher' of Newcastle launched a fine whale boat which belonged to the Nereid, and crossed the river in her with some black natives as rowers. On returning in the evening, the wind and tide together swept the boat away towards the Oyster Bank, and got among the breakers. It was with some difficulty that Mr. Boucher, was rescued, by a boat which was sent for that purpose. The whale boat was obliged to be left to the mercy of the surf; and it is said that she lay on the beach, about three miles from Newcastle in a very shattered condition.

The Australian 11 August 1825


Thursday evening August 4 1825

I have much satisfaction in informing you that the desperadoes who have given so much annoyance at Wallis and Paterson's Plains, are a length taken. Their names are as follows: Laurence Cleary (Captain of the gang) Aaron Price, Patrick Clynch, and Patrick Reily alias Reiby, all government servants to Mr. V. Jacob. Also, another vagabond, whose name us unknown but who it is said has recently deserted from Mr. Mudie's farm and joined the others. It appears that information had been lodged with Mr. Scott; the resident Magistrate at Patrick's Plains, that these fellows had got into his district, whereupon he called out all those whom he could immediately command, and putting himself, at their head, they, with the assistance of some black natives soon got on the track of the bushrangers and fortunately fell in with them the day before yesterday. They were discovered, and taken without resistance. This was accomplished the more easily in consequence of the heavy rain falling at the time, which had induced the bushrangers to envelope their fire arms in their blankets. They were handcuffed and chained together and were last night conveyed, under a strong escort, in a cart to the military station at Wallis's Plains, and I anticipate their arrival at Newcastle to night, where, you may be sure, they will be take care of. I am inclined to think these fellows have been driven off their ground at Paterson and Wallis's Plains by the active exertions of the Magistrates of those districts. Yesterday two other of Mr. Jacob's men were committed to the gaol here by Mr. Close J.P. at Wallis's Plains, for having property in their possession, which is identified as part of that stolen from Mr. McClymant, at the time of the outrages on his farm. These fellows admit having had interviews with the other runaways from Mr. Jacob, and I suppose gave them every information of the movements of the military sent in pursuit of them, which enabled them, the bushrangers to evade the chase so long, but having been taken themselves, the runaways no longer dared remain in the neighbourhood, and by shifting their ground to Patrick's Plains they hoped to carry on their depredations for some time longer. Through the prompt decision and praiseworthy exertions of Mr. Scott, it seems we are relieved from further dread and insult. At all events our Magistrates of the counties of Northumberland and Durham, deserve the commendations of the community and I have no doubt that their services will be duly appreciated.

(Further particulars , August 6)

The day before yesterday I had the pleasure in informing you that Mr. Jacob's Irish brigade was, by the active and praiseworthy exertions of Mr. Scott, the Magistrate at Patrick's Plains in custody, and that the arrival of the party was hourly expected here where they would be in safe custody. I now regret to acquaint you; that after Mr. Scott had handed them over to a party of the military at the barracks at Wallis's Plains (a corporal and four privates of the Buffs) and a constable, these suffered themselves to be surprised by their prisoners although the prisoners had handcuffs on. The prisoners took from the soldiers unresistingly five muskets one hundred and twenty rounds of ball cartridge all their provisions, clothing, indeed every thing worth taking. They then went to O'Donnel's farm and got another musket there, and then proceeded on their march. The party now consists of Mr. Jacob's four men, one of Mr. Mudie's men and a man who was confined in barracks and servant to Doctor Moran, and who of course joined the other desperadoes. Never in the annals of the army I think did such an affair occur. Six prisoners in irons to succeed in taking the arms of five soldiers. Depend upon it this banditti, whenever they are fallen in with will make a desperate resistance, and no doubt there will be bloodshed ere they are taken. I am under every apprehension for Mr. Scott's premises; the probability is, they will plunder them, if not burn them to the ground. The like may be expected at Mr. Dangar's the surveyor whose overseer was very active in assisting Mr. Scott in taking them. We are in alarm throughout the settlement. I will write more by the cutter Lord Liverpool.

(Extract of another Letter from Newcastle dated the 3rd instant)

Three of four settlers boats including a fine launch belonging to Mr. R.C. Dillin, went adrift, from the violence of the gale last night and I don't expect the owners will ever again see anything of them, except probably their fragments . The pilot was obliged to go off last night to lay down an additional anchor for the security of the government brig Elizabeth Henrietta, recently arrived here from Port Macquarie, and on his return to the shore his boat was stove on the beach; and the other pilot boat being up the river on duty we are without a boat fit to go round Nobby's should the weather moderate, and a vessel appear in sight. Indeed, this place is so badly off for boats of every description (and government have no carpenters here capable of building a boat) that six months hence, unless supplied from Sydney, you may calculate upon my informing you that there will be neither launch, whale boat, nor anything like a boat fit for service. The government at Sydney appear to think that every thing can be done without men or means but the bubble must soon burst.

The Australian 18 August 1825


To the Editor of the Australian Gentlemen, The very lively interest which appears in your valuable Journal respecting the neglected state of the districts of Hunter's River with regard to the inefficiency and insufficiency both of the Military and Police as also of Magistrates for the protection of the settlers and the security of their properties, induces me to trouble you with the following statement of facts, which have lately occurred.

Mr. Scott, a most active magistrate, understanding the bushrangers were in his neighbourhood armed some of his servants, with whom, and and some soldiers accompanied also by Mr. Archibald Bell went in pursuit of them and after three days fatiguing walk through the scrubs and over rocks succeeded in capturing the whole of the party who had robbed Messrs. Hicks, Harris, McClymont, Maziere and several others. They had been joined by another man a few days before who had absconded from Mr. Mudie; after lodging the villains in the Barracks at Wallis's Plains, in custody of five well armed soldiers he had retired but a few hours when he was aroused, in the middle of the night with an account that the bushrangers and a man belonging to Dr. Moran's farm had succeeded in surprising the soldiers all of them must have been sleeping instead of attending to their very important charge and had escaped. - taking with them the whole of the soldiers arms, ammunition and provisions they also broke into a house near the barracks from whence they stole a musket; they likewise took several horses. Mr. Scott immediately went off again with such men and arms as could be got ready at such short notice. It appears they eluded his pursuit for on the next night they went to the hut of Mr. Jacobs's overseer, whence they dragged the overseer's wife, it is supposed they have murdered the unfortunate woman and a man who followed them with a view of ascertaining if possible what they intended doing with her. The wretches returned in an hour to the hut, and compelled the inhabitants to get them some supper; but, neither the woman nor the man who followed them were with them, nor have they since been heard of. The wretches afterwards went to Mr. Winder's farm, where they committed their usual depredations and grossly abused the overseer, one of the villains presented a musket to the man's breast and afterwards brought a rope intending to hang him. Mr. Scott again succeeded in getting up with them on Saturday night; but an alarm being made by a pistol belonging to one of the party going off four of them and those the most desperate effected their escape, but closely pursued by Mr. Scott and his party. A party from Mr. McLeod's farm had a skirmish with them on Saturday but they escaped, after firing six shots at their pursuers. We are in expectation of seeing the villains brought here every moment; the two who were taken are safely lodged in the jail here.

The brutal outrage they committed on a most respectable and virtuous woman, as well as the overseer's wife mentioned above must ever stamp this affair as a disgrace to the government for the very shameful neglect of this place with regard to the police and military; nor can too much praise be given to that very active magistrate Mr. Scott for his spirited and patriotic exertions during what may now be justly called a continued pursuit of nearly ten days through every hardship shortness of provisions and exposure to every variation of weather both by night and day.

Permit me Gentlemen to ask is the colonial Treasurer so poor that it cannot bear the expense of adding more magistrates to the police here? If so, I am certain there are several public spirited gentlemen in theses districts who would voluntarily come forward and require no other reward for their exertions than the consciousness of promoting the welfare of the neighbourhood and of preserving the public pence. The paltry sum now given the magistrates can never be a consideration in the mind of any one, who has the good of the community at heart; and, I am equally convinced, if government will in candour avow they are so contracted in their means, that they cannot afford to pay the constables, the inhabitants themselves will remunerate them by general subscription.

Our Magistracy consist only of three individuals namely Mr. Close who resides near Wallis's Plains; Mr. Scott resident 10 miles by land and near 60 by water from Mr. Close; and Mr. Webber, who resides 11 miles by land from Mr. Close his distance from Mr. Scott is not accurately known but is supposed to exceed the distance between Mr. Scott and Mr. Close. Our constabulary consist of three constables stationed at Wallis Plains two at Patterson's Plains one with Mr. Scott and one at Williams river.

The military consists of two soldiers at Wallis's Plains two at Patterson's Plains and two at William's River, there are no soldiers in Mr. Scott's district.

Allow me, Gentlemen, to ask if you can consider such a force sufficient for the protection of these districts which extend over surface of nearly 100 miles where the inhabitants are placed at such distances from each other, exposed to the depredations not only of the vicious among their own and neighbor's servants but also of the runaways from Port Macquarie as those character always endeavour to make this place in their escape from that settlement.

I had written thus far, when I was informed that Mr. Scott is still continuing the pursuit of the wretches, under the great disadvantage of having his feet galled almost to the bones, he being compelled to travel on foot, the nature of the ground which he is compelled to traverse not allowing him to make use of a horse.

The vessel being about to get under weigh, does not allow me time to copy what I have written; I have, therefore, to beg, Gentlemen you will excuse the scrawl, and allow me to subscribe myself, Gentlemen your most obedient servant, A Resident in Middlehope.

New Streets

The new line of streets is being marked out at Newcastle, and it is intended that all huts which impede or are in the way of this desirable object (the formation of the new streets ) will be pulled down or removed by the 1st of next month.

New Chief Constable

A Mr. Muir, a pensioner of the royal Regiment of Sappers and Miners, has lately been appointed chief constable at Newcastle, and it is said that the police there is forthwith to be placed on a complete footing.

The Australian 25 August 1825


Extract of a letter from Newcastle dated 19th inst.

'We have lost all traces of the banditti now at large. Lieut. Owen returned to Newcastle yesterday, having been recalled from the pursuit of them, by orders from head quarters, directing him to join his own company (light infantry) at Port Macquarie. he will leave this place universally regretted; he is both a gentleman and a soldier. Lieutenant Wright succeeds him.

The two fellows who were of the supper party at Mr. Winder's farm and who were subsequently captured by Mr. Scott, have just taken their passage to Sydney in the cutter Mermaid fully committed for trial.

The wife of Mr. Jacob's overseer was not compelled to accompany the men into the bush; their restraints over her were limited to her presiding at the tea table at their last visit to the farm. It was their intention to have flogged her husband, but he took to his heels as soon as Capt. Cleary appeared in sight, and sought shelter at Mr. McLeod's There is no doubt that they have continual communication with the stockmen by which means they have hitherto successfully evaded the pursuit of the military. We shall have them starting up in some corner or other and astonishing us.


The Sydney Gazette 1 September 1825

Police Department

Government and General Order

The Governor has been pleased to approve the following Appointments: In the District of Newcastle Mr. George Muir to be Chief Constable; James Hogan (free) to be ordinary constable in the room of Bailey, resigned; and William McCarthy per Pilot to be bush constable.

The Australian 1 September 1825


The Bushrangers in the district of Hunter's River according to the information we have received from our Correspondents, have been committing the most serious depredations. On Thursday se'nnight Mr Reid's house was burnt down in a very extraordinary manner, no one about the premises being willing to give any account of how the fire originated. He also lost his wheat and some valuable property in the same manner, and was only able to save his bedding and articles of furniture. Mr. Evans's house was attacked Mr. E. opened the window in the approach of the Bushrangers intending to fire upon them but not seeing them at that moment, he hesitated. Mrs. E. shewed a great deal of coolness and courage and urged her husband to make every possible resistance. They afterwards summoned him to open the door - this he refused; upon which they obtained a light and threaten to burn the house to the ground. At this time eight of Mr. E's own men made their appearance, and he of course thought all was safe, and that probably the Bushrangers would be secured. Strange, however, to say, and yet not strange to say, for the men were prisoners, they one and all very complacently seated themselves, and allowed the Bushrangers to make a thorough ransack of the house; while they only laughed at the goings on, observing that they would not risk their lives in fights which did not concern them. Another account, however, states that these men were fastened in an out house whether voluntarily or not does not appear. The Bushrangers got possession of Mr. Dangar's double barrelled fowling piece and four muskets, and Clothing and provisions. They destroyed the cocks of the muskets. Mr. Evans describes them as apparently suffering from want of food. They had no shoes. They seemed also to be short of powder. They had all made off before any alarm could be given to the nearest neighbours. A regular night watch is kept by the Settlers, some of whom have a good deal of confidence in the men about their premises. It is very evident, from the manoeuvres of the Bushrangers that they receive information from the stockmen and others.

The Australian 8 September 1825


(Extract from a letter dated August 26, 1825)

'On Wednesday the 24th four bushrangers went to Dr. Radford's near Wallis Plains, and met with a reception little expected - the doctor had notice of their approach, and the moment he observed them, fired, and wounded one man severely as the waistcoat was found yesterday morning all covered with blood. One of Dr. Radford's men acted with great courage and wounded another - this man deserves great credit for supporting his Master, as it seems to be believed that not one prisoner in fifty in this district would have followed his example. The parties fired fourteen shots.

(Extract from another Letter dated the 29th ult)

The last news respecting the bushrangers states that they are concealed in a brush at a place called narrow gut at Wallis's Plains; if this be the case, you may expect very shortly to hear a good account of them. The wounded man is with them, they are lying by for his perfect recovery; and for subsistence they have killed a bullock belonging to Mr. Harris.

A man of the name of James Innis in whose hut was found some of the property stolen from Dr. Evans, and Mr. Harris has been committed to take his trial.

(Extract of another letter dated the 27th)

In is a singular circumstance that none of the natives can be brought to give any intelligence respecting these desperadoes, from which it is inferred that they have some black women with them, who keep the others from giving information respecting them.

(Extract of another letter)

I wrote you on the 28th ult. since which Mr. Jacob's house has been attacked by the three surviving bushrangers and the new overseer robbed of two pistols. Mr. McLeod pursued them without loss of time and traced them to Brown's Brush where he lost them.

The Sydney Gazette 8 September 1825

Horse Patrol to Suppress Bushrangers

Public Notice Colonial Secretary's Office, 7th September 1825 It being found necessary to establish a Horse Patrol in the districts of Bathurst and Newcastle for the Purpose of suppressing Bushrangers, and the Government not as yet having established Depots of Provisions for the Troops so employed, it is hoped, that the different Settlers at the Outstations, where this patrole may stand in need of Rations, will issue the same on the receipt of the Officer, or Non commissioned Officer; and the chief Commissary will be instructed to remunerate such individuals, either in property or in money, at the Election of the individual, at a price to be determined, in case of difference of opinion, by the nearest Magistrate. By His Excellency's Command. F. Goulburn, Colonial Secretary.

Reward Offered for Apprehension of Bushrangers

Public Notice Colonial Secretary's Office, 7th September 1825

Fifty Dollars reward or a pardon. Fifty Spanish Dollars are hereby offered to every individual, apprehending and securing any Convict who has committed an Outrage within the Districts of Bathurst and Hunter's River, while absent, without leave, from the service of his employer. Should the person apprehending the felon, be a prisoner himself, the above reward at his election, will be commuted for a free pardon. By Command of the Governor, F. Goulburn Colonial Secretary.

The Sydney Gazette 15 September 1825

Convict Muster by Magistrate at Government House, Newcastle

Government and General Order

The Governor with the view of relieving settlers residing in remote distances from the inconvenience and expense to which they are exposed in attending the Annual General muster at the Stations hitherto assigned for taking it; and with the hope that such Musters may be more accurately made, under the Superintendence of Magistrates residing in or near each district, than can be expected from previous arrangements which were framed for a very circumscribed population when compared with that which the colony now possesses; has deemed it expedient to devolve on the Magistrates the important Duty hitherto performed by Governors personally: It is therefore ordered that the Annual Musters of the inhabitants shall henceforth be taken by the Magistrates residing in the several Districts. The Muster for the Population of the District of Hunter River will take place in the Government House, Newcastle on the 3rd, 10th and 13th October.

The Australian 15 September 1825

Public Works at Newcastle

To the Editor of the Australian, Sydney Aug. 15.,

Sir, I observed in the last Australian, an extract from a letter, which went to censure the government at Sydney, for neglecting to furnish the means competent to the carrying on of the public works, at Newcastle. In explanation of the seeming culpable neglect, allow me to state, that the government at Sydney, had at one time much reason to entertain a feeling of jealousy as to the appropriation of the men and materials, supplied to the outstations, exclusively for the benefit of the public; and it is therefore not to be wondered at, if the requisitions of those who superintend the public concerns at these stations should be but tardily and imperfectly complied with.

The time was, when the boats crews at one of the settlements were employed in sowing potatoes - the schoolmaster in catching butterflies. - and when many other (sometimes eight, sometimes ten) labourers were employed, for the particular benefit of an individual, and were at the time clothed and fed, at the expense of the public.

Putting out of the question the possible emergencies, that might have demanded the exertions of the first descriptions of persons, under certain circumstances, - the opposition made to the enlightened and benevolent views of the Government, in maintaining a schoolmaster; and the loss accruing to the public, by the misapplication of the labor, food and clothing, of so many men - what effect was such conduct on the part of their superintendents, likely to produce on the minds of the prisoners?

Taking the most favourable view of such conduct, it must be concluded to be in its nature questionable at least; and the influence on the minds of men already criminally inclined, of questionable practices in persons they are commanded to honor and respect - cannot fail to strengthen the propensity to crime.

Happily, the practice of going to church, did not aggravate the evil of those alluded to; otherwise these degraded men would have been taught at the same time, to consider religion as having no reference to the general conduct of men, which would be to despise and deny religion altogether, I am. Sir, your most obedient servant. Homo.


The Lord Liverpool cutter cleared the heads at Sydney 9 a.m. and reached Newcastle at 5 p.m.

The Sydney Gazette 22 September 1825

Absconding Prisoner

Principal Superintendent's Office

The undermentioned Prisoner having absented herself from employment, all constables and others are hereby required to use their utmost exertions in lodging them in custody.

Susan Grey (alias Scott) per Broxbournberry. Aged 41. Native of London. Absconded from Government service, Newcastle.

The Australian 22 September 1825

Newcastle Wharf

Our attention has lately been called to the state of the Government wharf at Newcastle. It is composed of wood, and was built several years since. In the month of January last nearly one half of it was destroyed by the strain of a hawser, which had been fastened to it, from the ship Princess Charlotte, when she was there loading with coals; so that at present at low water, and till half tide, and sometimes till high water, the Government launches, which carry off the coals to the shipping, will not float with their cargoes. This is a great inconvenience and detriment to all parties concerned; and in heavy weather, like that which has recently been experienced there, a launch dare not approach the wharf; for it is in so crazy a state, that common sized boat, with a load in her, would, in all probability, shake it to pieces, much more so a launch loaded with eight or ten tons of coals. One day, during the time that the Government brig Elizabeth Henrietta was lying there, waiting for coals, with many passengers on board her from Port Macquarie, all victualled by the Crown, the weather would not allow of a boat to go alongside the wharf (in its present miserable condition) to be loaded - so that that day may be said to be lost, in respect to that vessel, as well as the expenses attending her. That part of the platform of the wharf, which remains is full of holes; and at this moment it is considered unsafe for any person to go on it, both from the cause, and from the age and weakness of its supporters. It must soon, very soon, fall; and then farewell to the loading of coals, for the next six months; for it would require at least, that time, to build a substantial wharf, even if Government were to send from hence fifty mechanics and labourers, for the express purpose; and without such reinforcement, it will not be in the power of the Commandant, however zealous he may be, to accomplish the task in years instead of months. Almost every Government vessel coming thence, hither, brings more or less of mechanics, and other prisoners of the Crown, who have become free by servitude; but their places there do not appear to be supplied from hence, consequently the strength of that establishment is daily diminishing.

The Government buildings there are mostly in a ruinous state, and it would seem that the persons whose duty it is to have them kept in repair, hardly know which building first to begin upon. It is really melancholy to see the state to which that once pretty little town is reduced. No blame, however, ought on account of the present dilapidations, to be attributed to either of the Commandants - the foundations of the buildings were laid chiefly by Major Morisset, who as few weeks before he retired from the command at Newcastle, sent from thence to Port Macquarie, almost all the good mechanics, who were on the settlement; and it is a well known fact, that many of those mechanics are now working at Port Macquarie as common labourers.

As they were not sent from Newcastle for any crimes committed there it would be well if the Government here were to order such persons to be returned to Newcastle, as the Commandants of the two settlements might agree upon. Newcastle would then be supplied with good mechanics and labourers, without inconveniencing the gangs here. At all events if some mechanics are not speedily ordered to Newcastle, to repair the public buildings there, the greater part, if not all of them will go to wreck. During the rainy weather of the last month, there was not a dry apartment in all Captain Allman's residence. The Superintendent's house and stores are falling to pieces; the Commissariat Stores; Prisoners' Barracks, and Watchhouse, are in no better state; indeed the whole town (if it may be so called) wears a dreary and desolate appearance; and, in the back ground, the unfinished and ruinous state of Macquarie Pier, finishes the picture.

The above was furnished us a short time ago by one of our valuable Correspondents. The worth of his statement and prediction will be best estimated by the fact of the Wharf having actually fallen down within the last few days.

Theft of Merino Lamb

A very fine Merino ram, which was taken to Newcastle by Mr. McIntyre in the cutter Lord Liverpool, and landed on Saturday last, was placed in the government paddock until an opportunity might offer of sending him up the river. In the early part of Monday morning, before daylight, he was stolen from the paddock, and in the course of that day the head and skin were found about a quarter of a mile from the town; and on Tuesday the carcase, all but the two shoulders, was discovered near the burying ground. A reward of forty dollars has been offered to any person who will come forward to give such evidence or information as will lead to the conviction of the perpetrator of so wanton and shameful an outrage.

Coal Mine Injury

On Tuesday morning last one of the most useful men employed in the coalmines at Newcastle, being at work, a large mass of coals fell on him and fractured his thigh bone, and dreadfully lacerated his head. His skull is visible in several places but hopes are entertained of his recovery.


The Bushrangers have again housed themselves in their old quarters, Brown's Brush, in the District of Hunter's River, and have begun to enjoy their fun and frolic as usual. Mr. Duguid was visited yesterday week we understand and laid under contribution.

Price of Coal

The Government brig Amity arrived here on Saturday last, having been at Newcastle from the 28th ult. till the 23rd inst. in taking in about ninety tons of coals. It would seem that there is not a sufficient force at Newcastle to work in the mines, as very few or no coals were taken from that port while the Amity was loading. Should this evil not soon be remedied, we may reasonably enough expect that the price of this most useful article which is now 35s a ton, will shortly take a considerable rise.

The Sydney Gazette 29 September 1825

Government Stock Keeper

Whereas, Thirteen Head of Horned cattle: one poled Cow, aged, with spotted buttocks, brand imperfect, with her calf; one red poled cow, aged, brand imperfect; one red and white spotted heifer, 2 years old, brand imperfect; one dark red Heifer, with white feet, and a white circle on the forehead, brand imperfect; one black Heifer, with white spots on the flank, brand imperfect, with her calf; one brindle heifer, 2 years old, no brand, with her calf; one black heifer, with two white fore feet, no brand; and one black heifer, about two years old, no brand; were some months since discovered straying in the woods between Bungaree's Norah and Reid's Mistake, and which cattle have since at a considerable expense and trouble, been driven to the neighbourhood of Newcastle and placed in the charge of the Government Stock keepers; This is therefore to give notice, to all persons who may have lost cattle of the above descriptions, that they are open for inspection, and will be delivered to any person or persons identifying them, or either of them, as his or their property, and producing unequivocal proofs that they have lost such cattle from their herds on their paying their due proportion of the expenses, and for the trouble incurred in bringing them to this station. Such of the cattle as may not be claimed in three months from the date hereto, will be sold by public auction, to defray expenses, By Order of the Commandant, - Frederick Dixon, (Superintendent of Government Herds).


Quarterly Return of Convicts

Absconders at Large up to 1st October

Brown, George, Fortune, aged 34, Native of Venice, blind of left eye, black hair, pale complexion. Absconded from Newcastle

Bryan, James per Prince Regent, aged 22, Native of Cork, Hazel eyes, brown hair, sallow complexion. Absconded from Gaol Gang, Newcastle

Brown, John, per Morley, aged 33, Native of Yorkshire, high, grey eyes, brown hair, ruddy complexion. Absconded from the escort from Newcastle to Sydney.

Carney, Patrick alias Thomas. Per Lord Sidmouth, aged 23, Native of Doneraile, high, hazel eyes, brown hair, pale complexion. Absconded from Newcastle

Cody, James per Guildford, aged 32, native of Dublin, , black eyes, brown hair, dark pale complexion. Absconded from Gaol Gang, Newcastle

Carr, Patrick or Fitzpatrick per Asia (4), aged 25, native of County Meath, high, hazel grey eyes, black hair, fresh pock pitted complexion from Mr. Cory, Newcastle.

Duck, John, per Malabar, aged 27, native of Somersetshire, high, hazel eyes, dark flaxen hair, fair pale complexion. Absconded from Mr. Harris, Newcastle.

Fegan, Charles, per Countess of Harcourt, native of County Kildare, high, grey eyes, brown hair, fair freckled complexion absconded from the gaol gang, Newcastle.

Grey, Susan, alias Scott, per Broxbournbury, absconded from Newcastle

Hughes, Phillip, per Guildford, aged 30, native of London; blue eyes, light brown hair, sallow complexion absconded from the gaol gang, Newcastle

Kain, Daniel, per Minerva (3), aged 27, native of Waterford, grey eyes, light brown hair, fair pale complexion absconded from Newcastle

Kirk, William per Daphne. Aged 34. native of County Down, hazel eyes, brown hair, dark ruddy complexion absconded from Gaol Gang, Newcastle

Patterson, Isaac per Dromedary. Absconded from Newcastle

Stone, John per Tottenham. Aged 32. Native of Nottingham, hazel eyes, light brown hair, and dark sallow complexion absconded from Newcastle.

Sayer, Robert per Asia (2) aged 26, native place Norfolk. hazel eyes, brown hair, freckled complexion. Absconded from Mr. Mudie, Newcastle. Charged with robbery.

Simpson, John, per Shipley (3), AGED 23 Native of Eversham. hazel eyes, dark flaxen hair, florid complexion. Absconded from Mr. Mudie, Newcastle.

Wheatley, William per Batavia, aged 31. native of Gravesend, hazel eyes, brown hair, dark ruddy complexion absconded from Gaol Gang, Newcastle.

The Sydney Gazette 3 October 1825

Colonial Funds

Government Order - Statement of Colonial Funds for the year ended December 1824
Colonial vessels - Fees on Entry of: 54 vessels from Newcastle 1 from Port Stephens Fees on clearance of: 61 vessels to Newcastle 9 to Port Stephens.

Proceeds of coal sold at Newcastle at 10s 6d per ton 600/17/3d

Sum collected by Major Ovens, Chief Engineer: 80 Spanish Dollars for the sale of old boats.

George Brooks, Assistant Surgeon at Newcastle paid 137/5/- per annum (7/6d per day)

One overseer at the Hospital 25

The Sydney Gazette 6 October 1825

Colonial Funds

Government Order - Statement of Colonial Funds for the year ended December 1824
Frederick Dixon, Superintendent of convicts and Public works salary for the year 60

Isaac Elliott - Principal overseer from January 1st to April 10th 1825, 13/13/11d


On Monday afternoon a detachment of the 57th Regiment embarked on board the Government brig Amity under the Command of Captain Haverside to relive the detachment of 3rd (Buffs) doing duty at Newcastle and sailed the same evening.

Ticket of Leave Granted

Thomas Hambleton per Jessy (1820) obtained Ticket of Leave for the district of Newcastle.

The Australian 6 October 1825


To the Editor of the Australian Sir, A few days since I perused a paragraph in your much admired Paper, which states that the bushrangers in the vicinity of Newcastle and Hunter's River, were traced to a brush near the farm of Mr. Cory, sen., and that they were pursued by Cap. Frankland, Mr. Boughton and Mr. E. Cory. The fact is, Mr. Frankland has a farm adjoining Mr. Cory's and Mr. E. Cory's farm and was called on by the former to pursue the bushrangers, but declined following them stating he had a family - however, they were pursued by Mr. Cory who has a family of eight children, Mr. E. Cory, his son, and Mr. Boughton, unfortunately without success. (20th September)

The Australian 13 October1825


In our last we announced the departure on the 3rd inst. of the government brig Amity, for Norfolk Island; instead of which she made a trip to Newcastle, with a detachment of the 57th regt. under the orders of Capt. Heaviside, to the relief of the Buffs under the command of Capt. Wright, with whom she returned to head quarters on the 7th inst.


On Monday week last the Bushrangers of Hunter's River (our Newcastle correspondent informs us) were put to the rout. Serjeant Wilcox and privates Wright and Coffee got intelligence of the haunts of these men, and entered on the pursuit accordingly. On approaching within 200 yards of a hut on the farm of Mr. Spark at Wallis's Plains, they observed a man issued from it. Their suspicions were awakened, and on his giving the alarm to persons inside, they were assured that they were correct, and that he and his comrades were bushrangers. The Serjeant fired into the hut. Patrick Riley, a bushranger, came out, and before he could be laid hold of fired twice on the soldiers; one of whom, Coffee, returned the fire and shot him dead on the spot. Two others had also come from the hut. These stood looking on till Riley fell. They then made off. Cleary, one of them, was afterwards taken; as also a man called Price, who surrendered himself as soon as Riley was shot. They were conducted to the Police Office, and afterwards to the gaol. Lynch is the name of the man who escaped.

The utility of employing soldiers to hunt down the bushrangers, is now rendered tolerably evident by the event which recently happened at Wallis's Plains, and which is recorded in this day's Paper. When we recommended this method of relieving the settlers from a formidable danger, we were fully satisfied that it would prove successful. The governor we believe was sometime ago urged to have recourse to it, and his Excellency had every disposition to do so; and was only restrained by representations of this being illegal to employ soldiers in this way. In what the illegality consisted, we never knew; and it is, moreover, of little consequence, now that it seems not to be so considered. The bushrangers will not be over fond of meeting the red coats; they will, therefore, quietly remain in their respective gangs. The redcoats too, will not be backward in their pursuit of those who are out; and, we shortly expect to have a very good account of most of them. The most desperate of the gang at Hunter's River already disposed of, or in the high road to meet their fate. We are satisfied that we shall, at any rate, hear no more about the bushrangers being succoured by a class of profligate settlers; who, for a length of time carried on a traffic with them - exchanging powder and shot for stolen property. That trade is knocked up; thanks to the employment of soldiers on this mission - not forgetting such of the Magistrates and Settlers as performed their duty. The Sydney Gazette 17 October 1825

Town Allotments

Government and General Order

All allotments in the town of Newcastle which are not enclosed and built upon within six months from the date of this notice are to be considered abandoned by their present possessors and will be given to other occupants. By Command of His Excellency the Governor. F. Goulburn. Colonial Secretary.

The Sydney Gazette 20 October 1825

Newcastle Settler Robbed in Sydney

William Jackson, John Jones, John Stevens, and Henry Gill, prisoners of the crown, and all charged with having committed a robbery to a very serious extent, on a settler from Newcastle. It appeared, that the settler had become intoxicated and was lying down in George street, (Sydney), with property about him in bills and dollar notes to the amount of near 300 and that he had invited some men who had found him in that situation to drink with him, in a public house in Market Street, where they had no sooner been seated, than one of the prisoners drew from the trowsers pocket of the settler a parcel containing the property in question, with which he immediately ran off, and was joined by the rest of the party, in which is termed a rush'; - that the men all got clear away with the booty, but on the following morning two of them, Jackson and Jones were challenged by the police constables ( being strangers in Sydney) and pulled up, and on searching Jackson, several dollars and dollar notes were found in his possession. Jackson made very violent resistance to this ceremony of searching, but was at length overpowered; he had also a quantity of new wearing apparel on him, which he had purchased with the notes stolen from the settler, and which were traced and identified; but this was owing to the confessions of John Jones the other prisoner who being allowed to give in his statement, made a full disclosure of all the circumstances of the case which led to detection, and to the recovery of a great part of the property. The other prisoners Stevens and Gill, were proved to have been active on the occasion; one had joined the other men in the first rush, and the other had been employed in smashing the notes.


The Australian 3 November 1825

Plentiful Crops near Newcastle

By accounts lately received from Newcastle we have the satisfaction to learn that there is every prospect of an abundant harvest this season in that part of the country. Some recent showers of rain had been production of much good. The settlers will commence reaping in a few days. Messrs. Webber, Winder, and McLeod are said to have extensive crops of wheat besides Maize in proportion and all the other settlers of every description have also exerted themselves to get large crops in so that unless some unforeseen accident occurs there will be plentiful supplies of wheat at Newcastle this season.


To the Editors of the Australian

'Gentlemen, I have been informed by a friend of a paragraph in your Newspaper asserting my unwillingness to pursue the bushrangers, as I had a family to protect whilst Mr. Cory, with a family of eight children, bravely followed them. This might be received by some with much disadvantage to myself; and, I trust you will in justice correct the error. I never refused to follow the bushrangers, and Mr. Cory has no child; that he bravely followed them I am not aware, nor at what distance; but that he would do so, if required, I believe. In January 1824 my huts were robbed of some trifling articles and my tent attempted by four bushrangers. I sent to Mr. Cory early the following morning, and we traced them by means of blacks; at length we overtook four armed men and succeeded in taking two, one of whom, I believe, is the notorious McCabe. The other two made their escape. Mr. Cory wounded McCabe, and fortunately for us their arms were not in order. The above assertion, accompanied by Captain Gillman's letter inclosed, will, perhaps, prove to the public I was not afraid to follow bushrangers; although I might have expressed myself that the young unmarried men ought to take the lead, and the married with families stay at home; for what man would like to leave his wife exposed to violation and every insult, and would not resist it with his last blood. I am gentlemen, your most obedient servant. George J. Frankland, Vineyard Cottage, 18 October 1825.

P.S. You will observe in my letter, Gentlemen, I have heard by a friend, and not yet received my Newspaper; which induces me to trespass still further upon you by mentioning how irregularly and uncertain we receive letters and papers on Hunter's River, and I trust you will duly notice this subject. The letters come regularly to Newcastle by the cutter Lord Liverpool they are warehoused for I believe 2d. each, and sent when any body will take them, and some take them certainly and lose them. I have endeavoured to file your Newspaper; but it is impossible - besides, when I am lucky enough to get one, it comes generally without a cover.

The Australian 10 November1825

Prisoners from Newcastle

Sydney - The brig Amity which arrived from Newcastle on Friday last has brought up 19 prisoners, three of whom are assigned to the factory, 5 for trial at the criminal court on capital charges and 11 under sentence of transportation to a penal settlement.

The Sydney Gazette 10 November1825

Police Department

Government and General Orders - Newcastle -

The Governor has been pleased to approve of the following appointments: John Bell (free) appointed constable vice Bradley dismissed for improper conduct. By His Excellency's Command. F. Goulburn, Colonial Secretary.

The Sydney Gazette 14 November 1825

Quarter Sessions

Isaac Elliot was indicted for stealing a pig, the property of Mr. Frederick Dixon, at Newcastle, on the 8th September last. There being no identification of the property, the Learned Chairman directed the Jury to acquit the prisoner. Not Guilty.

Thomas Iredale was indicted for having in his possession a quantity of slop clothing, with the Government mark, at Newcastle, on the 5th September last.

George Muir, chief constable at Newcastle, deposed, that, on the 5th of September last, he received a warrant from Captain Allman, a Magistrate at Newcastle, to search a boat belonging to the prisoner, when he found some striped shirts, and some trowsers, having the Government mark, which the prisoner stated he had purchased in Sydney.

Cross-examined. Has heard that there are sales made of such articles by the Commissary General; does not know but things marked in that way are sent down to Newcastle for sale.

William Cooper deposed, that he exchanged a striped shirt which he had received from the Superintendent at Newcastle, with the prisoners for a white one. The Learned Chairman was of opinion, that this case ought not to go any farther, for, from the way in which prisoners of the crown are in the habit of disposing of their clothes, and also from the fact that such property is frequently sold by public auction, it would be impossible to apply that Act to this country, which makes being in possession of crown property a transportable offence for 14 years. Not guilty.

The Sydney Gazette 17 November 1825

Police Report

Sydney - Peter Stewart, prisoner of Crown who had been from the service of a settler at Newcastle sentenced to 50 lashes and to be forwarded to his station. It appeared this was his 2nd offence and in this case he had publicly declared he would not go to the service he was assigned.

The Sydney Gazette 28 November 1825

Bushrangers Supreme Criminal Court November 19

John McDonnel, Aaron Price, Thomas Moss, Lawrence Cleary, and Patrick Clinch, were indicted for a burglary and robbery in the house of Thomas White at Wallis's Plains on the 5th of August last - Guilty. Remanded.

The Sydney Gazette 1 December 1825


Supreme Court

Before the Chief Justice. Saturday November 26

Michael Cassidy, Patrick Clinch, Laurence Cleary, Aaron Price and

James Innis, were indicted for a larceny and burglary in the house of Dr. Evans at Hunter's River and stealing there from a quantity of wearing apparel, and other articles, on the 20th of August last. The information contained two counts. The first count charged the prisoners with a larceny and putting the prosecutor and his wife in bodily fear; and the second charged the burglary. The Jury found Cassidy, Clinch, Cleary and Price Guilty of the larceny. Innis Not Guilty. James Innis was indicted for having in his possession certain articles, the property of Mr. Standish Laurence Harris, at Newcastle, knowing the same to have been stolen, on the 20th of August last.

Michael Radford examined - Witness is a Constable at the Coal River, remembers a robbery having been committed in the house of Mr. Harris; witness searched the house of the prisoner in company with some other constables, in consequence of information that he had received, and found 9 silver spoons wrapped up in a piece of India print, concealed under the boards of the floor, and also a musket; there were 5 table and 4 teaspoons; the prisoner stated that be bought them of a man who was since dead; witness was acquainted with the prisoner, and has seen silver spoons in his house previous to the robbery at Mr. Harris's, but cannot swear they were the same as those produced in Court. The prisoner seemed a little alarmed while witness was searching the house.

Mr. James Johnson examined; is in partnership with Mr. Harris at the Coal river; is possessed of separate property; witness remembers his dwelling house to have been entered by a party of bushrangers, who carried off a quantity of property in wearing apparel, some plate, consisting of 6 table and 5 tea spoons, and a musket; the spoons produced in Court are exactly similar to those which belonged to Mr. Harris, but witness cannot swear positively as they did not bear any particular mark. There was a coverlid carried away of India print, similar in appearance to the piece in which the spoons were wrapped when found in the house of the prisoner. The robbery must have been generally known in the neighbourhood; it was much noised abroad; the prisoner lives within 5 or 600 yards of Mr. Harris's dwelling house, but witness cannot swear positively that he heard of the robbery. There was a musket lost also; witness saw the one found in the prisoner's house, it was not the one taken from Mr. Harris.

Mr. James Robertson examined; witness is a silversmith in Sydney; sold some spoons to Mr. Harris, at the Coal River, about 15 months ago; they were exactly similar to those produced; witness is certain that he sold the spoons now in Court, but cannot swear positively that they were the identical ones sold to Mr. Harris, as other persons purchased some of the same kind; witness does not remember the prisoner having purchased any spoons from him; is certain they were sold to some person by him; the table spoons are of English manufacture, and the tea spoons were made it witness's house

Mrs. Anne Corsar, called in behalf of the prisoner, deposed, that she, together with her husband, resided in the prisoner's house at Newcastle for some time previous to the date of the robbery at Mr. Harris' s, and that she frequently saw silver table and tea spoons in his possession,. Which were carefully deposited in some place of safety after having been used; cannot swear they were the same as those produced but they were exactly similar. His Honor summed up, and put the case to the Jury entirely as one of evidence; strong circumstances of suspicion would arise against the prisoner from the situation in which the spoons were discovered, but it should be recollected that a musket was also found in the same place, which it was distinctly sworn was not the same as taken from Mr. Harris's house, on the night of the robbery; and the witness called on the part of the prisoner, had sworn to having frequently seen and used spoons similar to those afterwards discovered, previous to be robbery at Mr. Harris's. The Jury would also discharge from their minds any impression made by the appearance of alarm, which the prisoner was stated to have exhibited when the constable came for the purpose of searching his house, unless it was coupled with other circumstances which in their opinion, when to attach guilt to him, as he was clearly of opinion from experience, that no certain rule could be laid down whereby to pronounce upon the guilt or innocence of a party accused, from the conduct on the charge being first made known to them, a completely opposite effect being produced in different persons under similar circumstances; and His Honor himself had lately witnessed an instance in that court, when a prisoner had nearly caused his own execution, for a crime of which he was afterwards fully convicted he was completely innocent, by an incautious expression having escaped from him when the charge was first made known to him. * His Honor concluded by observing, that the case rested solely with the Jury, who would give the prisoner the benefit of any doubts they might entertain - Not Guilty.

The Weather

Hot Winds in NSW - The following experiment took place on a sultry day, very cloudy, the latter end of October, at Newcastle, with two thermometers:

In a room, with the windows open, cloudy atmosphere, noon - 86

The instrument taken to a broken pane of glass, and held in the current of wind, blowing nearly a gale - 89

Going out in the garden to try the effect in open air, the wind shifted in a moment from N.W. to S the thermometer fell in 2 minutes to - 72

On the preceding day it was clear sunshine, the wind a moderate gale at noon, the thermometer in a room, not affected by the wind - 78

In the shade outside of the house, in the wind - 96

In the sun and wind - 114


The Australian 8 December 1825

New Vessel

Another vessel, the Sophia, the property of Mr. Edward Cory, a respectable settler at Newcastle, is now ready for commencing operations as a constant trader between that port and this. Her length is 42 feet; the breadth of the beam 10 feet 6 inches; and the depth of her hold 5 feet 10 inches. All such enterprising individuals as Mr. C. certainly deserve encouragement.

Convict Muster - Twins

At the late general muster of the inhabitants of the settlement at Newcastle, there were three pair of little 'currency lasses' produced. They are about six or seven months old, and are the offspring of three mothers. - This is a fine country!

The Australian 15 December 1825

Burglary at the Church

The Church at Newcastle was burglariously broken into last Sunday week in the evening. The communion service had been performed the same day; and the thieves no doubt reckoned upon a rich booty of plate etc. In this they were happily foiled as they found nothing whatever of value. It is a great deal complained of by inhabitants that so many desperate characters as are seen at Newcastle should be allowed to remain at liberty. The gaol is large enough to contain all the prisoners especially from whom acts of violence may be dreaded; and it is better therefore that they should be shut up than that people should be left to their mercy.

The Sydney Gazette 19 December 1825

Postage Rates

From Newcastle to Sydney 4d
From Newcastle to Parramatta 8d

From Newcastle to Windsor 10d

From Newcastle to Liverpool 8d

From Newcastle to Campbelltown 10d

From Newcastle to Port Macquarie 4d

From Newcastle to Bathurst 12d

The Australian 22 December 1825


Two of the most notorious Bushrangers, who have been the terror of the settlers in the vicinity of Newcastle, have been sent to Port Macquarie. It is a great misfortune that these did not expiate their crimes on the scaffold. It was certainly placing Mr. Justice Stephen in an awkward dilemma, to send them to trial in the absence of the Chief Justice, since it has been thought necessary on this account to mitigate the punishment, and commute it into transportation at Port Macquarie. They are just now placed where they were before they committed their atrocities, which have alarmed the country from one end of it to the other. And we may expect before the lapse of twelve months, to see them continue to enter upon a renewed career, and tempting along with twenty or thirty others, whom the terrors of an execution might have frightened from such a design. The settlers have lost their property by these desperate fellows, have risked their lives, in securing them, and after all what do they see - the men snugly settled in their old quarters at Port Macquarie, ready we suppose, now to deal out murder by wholesale, instead of just retailing it as they formerly found it convenient. This is in truth a sore subject for the settlers of Hunter's River, who, to protect themselves, their families their Merinos and the property they were possessed of, turned out on every occasion like pioneers and constables and eagerly pursued their enemy, because they knew they were performing thus a service to themselves and to their fellow colonists.

The Sydney Gazette 23 December 1825

Convict Movement

By the Government vessel Sally, twelve prisoners were drafted to Newcastle and thirty two to Port Macquarie.

The Sydney Gazette 25 December 1825

Shipwreck - The Elizabeth Henrietta

A Loss of His Majesty's Colonial Brig Elizabeth Henrietta - We are sorry to communicate the total loss of the above vessel, which was commanded by Mr. J. R. Kent. From an official letter it appears that the Elizabeth Henrietta was on the return voyage from Port Macquarie having called at Newcastle on the 17th instant; Captain Kent got under weigh for Head quarters, the brig being in charge of the Pilot. In endeavouring to work out of the Harbour, she struck between the outer and inner reefs, off the N.W. end of Nobby's Island; the wind was at N.E. and the tide ebbing when she was nearly abreast of the reefs and the boat was ordered to be cast off by the pilot, as he considered the vessel considerably high to clear every danger. Unexpectedly the wind suddenly shifted to the E. N. E. when the pilot attempted gathering vessel about, but not coming round quickly, and in time, she soon struck, the rudder became unshipped, the cabin dead lights stove in, and in less than ten minutes she was filled with water, and remained fast on the rocks.

By the prompt, seaman like and gentlemanly attention of Captain Livingstone, of the Lord Liverpool, as well in conjunction with the crews of other Colonial vessels, their lying at anchor in the harbour; the whole of the military, passengers, and prisoners, were safely landed, and such stores as could be got at were saved; but, in consequence of the surf increasing, Captain Kent was reluctantly obliged to leave her at 12 o'clock; and up to the latest advise received, it had been impossible to approach the wreck, though Captain Kent continues on Nobby's Island, awaiting the first favourable opportunity to save the most valuable articles.

The whole of the baggage, together with the library of the Rev. Mr. Hassall, was on board, and we are sorry to say, that this gentleman's loss will be particularly severe.

In closing this hasty account, it would be unjust not to bear testimony to the value of the services of those who were instrumental in extricating such a number of our fellow creatures from destruction, which we beg to do in the language of Captain Kent.

I cannot close this without stating that had it not been for the perseverance of Captain Livingstone, and the boats crews, the ships company would not probably have been saved, his unremitting attention to the safety of the people, deserves our warmest thanks

The Sydney Gazette 29 December 1825

Civil Justice

We would beg to suggest to the Government the expediency of appointed Commissioners for the Court of Requests in the districts of Newcastle and Bathurst. By such an act of the Executive in those parts of the County will be materially assisted in the prompt administration of civil justice; besides which trade and commerce will have a tendency to flourish; since in the absence of such judicial process the patience of the creditors gets exhausted - the debtor grows insolent and confidence is almost extinct.


[1]. The Monitor 10 January 1834