Colonial Events 1791

 

 

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February 16....

The first ship of the Third Fleet left England

 

March28.........28.........

Remarkable escape from the colony by convicts William and Mary Bryant and others.

Read David Collins' account of their escape

 

 

 

March 30.........

Signing of first land grant in Australia. (Parramatta)

James Ruse, a convict whose sentence had expired and who had recently married (to Elizabeth Perrey on 5th September 1790), was granted 30 acres on 30th March 1791.  HRA Return of Lands Granted dated 5 November 1791 records that there was already 8 acres, 2 roods of land under cultivation. Prior to the Grant, Ruse was allowed 1 acre and a hut by Governor Phillip in November 1789  in order to establish the time it would take a man to cultivate sufficient quantity of ground to support himself (HRA, Series 1, Vol. 1., 1788 - 1796 p. 183)dated 5 November 1791 records that there was already 8 acres, 2 roods of land under cultivation. Prior to the Grant, Ruse was allowed 1 acre and a hut by Governor Phillip in November 1789  in order to establish the time it would take a man to cultivate sufficient quantity of ground to support himself (HRA, Series 1, Vol. 1., 1788 - 1796 p. 183)

 The 30 acre grant was sold to surgeon John Harris in 1793.

Experiment farm

April.........

The greater part of the live stock having been killed in 1790, the colony was distressed for provisions. a laying hen sold for 20 shillings; pork a shilling a pound and a roasting pig sold for 10 shillings.

 

June........Re-naming of Rosehill to Parramatta




July 9..........

First Ship of the Third Fleet. The Mary Ann transport departed England on 16 February 1791 and arrived at Sydney Cove on 9 July 1791 with 141 female convicts and six children, almost all in good health. She brought stores and nine months provisions for the women. The convicts were landed on 11th July 1791

The had been only four months and sixteen days from England; and had touched at the island of St. Jago, where she remained ten days.

Condition of the convicts received in the colony in the Third Fleet - Governor Phillip to Lord Grenville

Read convict Mary Talbot's Letter published  in The Times in October 1791 which gives an account of this voyage in October 1791 which gives an account of this voyage.

August.........

12 prisoners settled between Prospect Hill and the Ponds on the Hawkesbury Road

 

 

August - October

 

Arrival in Sydney of remainder of the Ships of the Third Fleet -

 

August 1........

 

Matilda - Convict arriving on the Matilda Daniel Phillips who accompanied John Howe on his expedition of discovery in 1819. A total of 205 male convicts were brought out on the Matilda.24 prisoners died on the passage out. An ensign with twenty privates were on board the24 prisoners died on the passage out. An ensign with twenty privates were on board the Matilda

February 18. The Mary Anne, bound to Botany Bay, sailed from Gravesend with near 100 women convicts on board. The Matilda also sailed at the same time to receive convicts at Portsmouth. Two other ships have sailed within these nine days, the William and Anne, and the Britannia, both with men convicts, supposed to have on board about 200 each. The other ships still lying at Gravesend, to receive the men convicts from Newgate, are the Albemarle, the Barrington, and the Active......  The Lady's Magazine: Or Entertaining Companion for the Fair Sex ..., Volume 22

 

 

August 8.........Mary Anne received the Matilda's cargo with 99 male convicts, and sailed for Norfolk Island having on board 133 male convicts, one female convict and two children.

August 20........

 

Atlantic - Anchored at Sydney Cove about midday.

Select HERE to find out more about the voyage of the Atlantic

 

August 21........

 Arrival of the Salamander with 12 privates of the NSW Corps and 154 male convicts and stores and provisions. Most of the convicts were in a weak emaciated state, and complained that proper attention had not been paid to them.


August 28.........

 

Arrival of the William and Ann  16 privates and one sergeant and a corporal of the NSW Corps formed the guard.

Master of the William and Ann was an American Captain - Eber Bunker.

Captain Bunker on the William and Ann and Thomas Melville on the Britannia were two of the first men who embarked on whaling voyages in 1791 ...Captain Tench's Account of the Colony in The British Critic Volume 2Captain Tench's Account of the Colony in The British Critic Volume 2

In 1791 a fishery for spermaceti whales on the coast of New South Wales was commenced by Captain Melville, commander of the Britannia, a ship belonging to Messrs. Enderby and Sons, the first British merchants who adventured in the southern whale fishery. Having discovered in his passage to Port Jackson with a load of convicts, that the spermaceti whales are more abundant in the seas adjacent to that country than near the coasts of South America, he sailed from that port on a whaling expedition, and was followed by several other vessels, which, like his own, were fitted for the whale fishery, and according to the original destination of their voyages, were to have stretched across the Pacific ocean to the coast of Peru on that pursuit. Captain M. got only one out of four whales that he killed, nor were the other vessels more successful, owing to the very tempestuous weather while they were out. But they were sufficiently encouraged to consider those seas as very favourable for the prosecution of the most valuable branch of the whale fishery.   Read more........

A Treatise on the Laws of Commerce and Manufactures By Joseph Chitty 

 

September 4.........The Salamander sailed for Norfolk Island with 160 male convicts, stores, provisions, two non-commissioned officers and 11 privates sailed for Norfolk Island with 160 male convicts, stores, provisions, two non-commissioned officers and 11 privates

 

 

September 21.......

 

Arrival of the Gorgon under Captain John Parker, with His Majesty's Authority for granting Pardons Absolutely or Conditionally. Governor King arrived as passenger under Captain John Parker, with His Majesty's Authority for granting Pardons Absolutely or Conditionally. Governor King arrived as passenger on the Gorgon. As soon as she anchored he went on shore to deliver government dispatches to Governor Phillip.

Select HERE to find out more about the voyage of the Gorgon

 

 

September 26.......

Arrival of the convict ship Active.  Master John Michinsonn.

 More about the voyage of the Active

(Celebrated pickpocket George Barrington arrived on the Active.....

'We shall introduce no other extract, but one which relates to a man who has excited universal curiosity—the celebrated Barrington. 'But before I bade adieu to Rose Hill, in all probability for the last 'time of my life, it struck me, that there yet remained one object of consideration not to be slighted: Barrington had been in the settlement between two and three months, and I had not seen him. I saw him with curiosity. He is tall, approaching to fix feet, slender, and his gait and manner bespeak liveliness and activity. Of that elegance and fashion, with which my imagination had decked him (I know not why), I could distinguish no trace. Great allowance should, however, be made for depression, and unavoidable * deficiency of dress. His face is thoughtful and intelligent; to a strong cast of countenance, he adds a penetrating eye, and a prominent forehead: his whole demeanor is humble, not servile. Both on his passage from England, and since his arrival here, his conduct has been irreproachable. He is appointed high-constable of the settlement of Rose Hill, a post of some respectability, and certainly one of importance to those who live here. His knowledge of men, particularly of that part of them into whose morals, manners, and behavior, he is ordered especially to inspect, eminently fit him for the office.  I cannot quit him without bearing my testimony, that his talents promise to be directed in future, to make reparation to society, for the offences he has heretofore committed against it, he is ordered especially to inspect, eminently fit him for the office.  I cannot quit him without bearing my testimony, that his talents promise to be directed in future, to make reparation to society, for the offences he has heretofore committed against it.' - The British Critic., Volume 2, p. 66

 

 

September 26........

First Irish convicts arrive on the Queen. Provisions and 126 male convicts and 21 female convicts. The Queen and the Active brought a part of the Guardian's cargo and detachments from the New South Wales corps. brought a part of the Guardian's cargo and detachments from the New South Wales corps.


September 28.......

Arrival of H.M.S. Discovery

 

October 5..........

William & Mary Bryant delivered to Captain Edward Edwards, of his Majesty's ship Pandora, by Timotheus Wanjon, Esq., Governor of the Dutch Settlements at Timor.

 

 

October 13.........

Arrival of the vessel Albemarle, Built in France- with a tonnage of 530.  250 male and six female convicts landed between 13th and 17th October, soldiers landed 21st October, Stores & Provisions landed 26th October. 23 soldiers with one woman, one free woman a convict's wife and one child. Built in France- with a tonnage of 530.  250 male and six female convicts landed between 13th and 17th October, soldiers landed 21st October, Stores & Provisions landed 26th October. 23 soldiers with one woman, one free woman a convict's wife and one child.

The convicts, during the passage, attempted to seize the ship.

 

 

October 14.........Arrival of the convict ship Britannia

Select HERE to find out more about the voyage of the Britannia

 

October 16........Arrival of the vessel Admiral Barrington with a captain, three non-commissioned officers and 24 privates with 264 male convicts; four women came out with their husbands, and two children.

 

October 26........

29Mariness4 wives & 10 children request to settle at Norfolk Island and depart on 26th October. The4 wives & 10 children request to settle at Norfolk Island and depart on 26th October. The 'Atlantic' to continue to Calcutta after Norfolk Island

List of Marine Settlers to Norfolk Island

 

 

November........A Vineyard was established on the Parramatta River

November........Beginning of the Whaling and sealing industries

 

 

 

December........Public protest after reduction in rations

 

 

December 12.......Duel fought between Major Robert Ross of the Marines and Captain William Hill

 

 

 

December 19......The   Gorgon cleared the Heads with a fair wind on her return voyage to England with the main body of the First Fleet Marines. Those who departed on thee Gorgon included Sergeant James Scott and his wife and children; Major Robert Ross; Ralph Clark; Watkin Tench; William Dawes..

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