- First Ship of the Third Fleet, the Mary Ann
departed England. The Mary Anne sailed from Gravesend with nearly 100 women convicts on board. The Matilda
also sailed at the same time to receive convicts at Portsmouth. Two other ships sailed within nine days, the William and Anne
, and the Britannia
, both with male convicts. The other ships still lying at Gravesend, to receive the male convicts from Newgate, were the Albemarle
, the Admiral Barrington
, and the Active
- The Lady's Magazine: Or Entertaining Companion for the Fair Sex
- Remarkable escape from the colony by convicts William and Mary Bryant
- Signing of first land grant in Australia. James Ruse, a convict whose sentence had expired and who had recently married Elizabeth Perrey on 5th September 1790, was granted 30 acres at Parramatta on 30th March 1791. HRA Return of Lands Granted dated 5 November 1791 records that there was already 8 acres, 2 roods of land under cultivation. Prior to the Grant, Ruse was allowed 1 acre and a hut by Governor Phillip in November 1789 in order to establish the time it would take a man to cultivate sufficient quantity of ground to support himself (HRA, Series 1, Vol. 1., 1788 - 1796 p. 183) The 30 acre grant was sold to surgeon John Harris
- The greater part of the live stock having been killed in 1790, the colony was distressed for provisions. A laying hen sold for 20 shillings; pork a shilling a pound and a roasting pig sold for 10 shillings.
- Re-naming of Rosehill to Parramatta
- Convict Mary Talbot's Letter
published in The Times in October 1791 gives an account of the voyage of the First Ship of the Third Fleet Mary Ann
which arrived at Sydney Cove on 9 July 1791 with 141 female convicts and six children, almost all in good health. The Mary Ann brought stores and nine months provisions for the women. The convicts were landed on 11th July 1791
- 12 prisoners settled between Prospect Hill and the Ponds on the Hawkesbury Road
AUGUST - OCTOBER
- The ships of the Third Fleet arrived in Sydney between August and October 1791
- Arrival of the Matilda
. A total of 205 male convicts were brought out on the Matilda. 24 prisoners died on the passage out. Matilda Convict Daniel Phillips accompanied John Howe
on his expedition of discovery in 1819.
- Mary Anne received the Matilda's cargo with 99 male convicts, and sailed for Norfolk Island having on board 133 male convicts, one female convict and two children.
- Convict Ship Atlantic
anchored at Sydney Cove about mid-day.
- Arrival of the Salamander
with 12 privates of the NSW Corps and 154 male convicts and stores and provisions. Most of the convicts were in a weak emaciated state, and complained that proper attention had not been paid to them.
- Arrival of the William and Anne
16 privates and one sergeant and a corporal of the NSW Corps formed the guard. Master of the William and Ann was an American Captain - Eber Bunker. Captain Bunker on the William and Ann and Thomas Melville on the Britannia were two of the first men who embarked on whaling voyages in 1791
- Salamander sailed for Norfolk Island with 160 male convicts, stores, provisions, two non-commissioned officers and 11 privates
- Arrival of convict ship Gorgon
, Captain John Parker. Philip Kidley King
arrived as passenger with His Majesty's Authority for granting Pardons Absolutely or Conditionally.
- Arrival of the convict ship Active
- Master John Michinsonn. Celebrated pickpocket George Barrington arrived on the Active.
- First Irish convicts arrive on the Queen
With provisions and 126 male convicts and 21 female convicts. The Queen and the Active brought a part of the cargo of the Guardian
which had been which had been wrecked; and detachments from the New South Wales corps.
- Arrival of H.M.S. Discovery.
- William & Mary Bryant
delivered to Captain Edward Edwards, of his Majesty's ship Pandora, by Timotheus Wanjon, Esq., Governor of the Dutch Settlements at Timor.
- Arrival of the Albemarle
; 250 male and six 250 male and six female convicts landed between 13th and 17th October, soldiers landed 21st October, Stores & Provisions landed 26th October. The convicts, during the passage, attempted to seize the ship.
- Arrival of the convict ship Britannia
- Arrival of the Admiral Barrington
. The Guard - A Captain, three non-commissioned officers and 24 privates 264 male convicts; four women came out with their husbands, and two children.
- Twenty-nine Marines, 4 wives & 10 children request to settle at Norfolk Island and depart on 26th October. The 'Atlantic' to continue to Calcutta after Norfolk Island
- A Vineyard was established on the Parramatta River
- Public protest after reduction in rations.
- Duel fought between Major Robert Ross of the Marines and Captain William Hill
- The Gorgon cleared the Heads with a fair wind on her return voyage to England with the main body of the First Fleet Marines. Those who departed on the Gorgon included Sergeant James Scott and his wife and children; Major Robert Ross; Ralph Clark; Watkin Tench; William Dawes
- In 1791 a fishery for spermaceti whales was commenced on the coast of New South Wales by Captain Melville, commander of the Britannia - Success of the Whaling Industry