Convict Ship Royal Sovereign 1835
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information about Convict Ships arriving in New South Wales, Norfolk
Island and Van Diemen's Land between the years 1788 and 1850
Embarked: 170 men
Voyage: 136 days
Surgeon's Journal: yes
vessel: Warrior arrived (from
Calcutta) 20 November 1835
Hive (wrecked 10 December 1835)
Captain John Moncrief
|The Royal Sovereign transported
convicts to Australia in
1834 (NSW), 1835
(NSW) and 1838 (VDL).
Some of the convicts arriving on the
Royal Sovereign had been tried and convicted at the Old
Bailey and imprisoned at Newgate before being sent to the hulks.
Select here to find out what it may
have been like to be imprisoned in Newgate in 1835.
Royal Sovereign departed England 29 July 1835 and arrived in
Port Jackson on 12 December 1835.
The Guard consisted of 32
soldiers of 17th and 28th Regiments including Captain Wheeler,
Ensign Hilliard, Sergeant Joyce, Corporal John Kelly, Private John
Corrigan (died), Private Thomas Macgrath, Private John Lehy.
Convict ships bringing detachments of the 28th regiment included
Lady McNaughten and Royal Sovereign
Convict ships bringing detachments of the 17th regiment - Adrian,
Nithsdale and Royal
Passengers included seven women and eight
Of 169 Convicts who disembarked at Port Jackson
75 could read and write and 37 could read only.
married in England before transportation
41 of the convicts left
children in England.
48 were farm workers – servants and
75 convicted of stealing
28 convicted of
33 had prior convictions
144 received tickets
of leave or certificates of freedom
Notes and Links:
Francis Logan was also employed as surgeon on the convict ships
Fanny in 1833,
Champion in 1827 and
the Mangles in 1837.
Bushrangers Richard Hicks and
Charles Wood arrived on the Royal Sovereign
Hunter Valley convicts arriving on the Royal Sovereign in 1835.
Find out more about some of the
prisoners who arrived on the Royal Sovereign...........
I J K
P Q R S
U V W X
Age 23. House servant tried at Bermuda quarter sessions 24 July 1834
and sentenced to 14 years transportation for stealing money. Died in
the General Hospital Sydney 4 July 1843.
A father of
two, George Bailey was convicted of Highway robbery at the Norfolk
Assizes on 28 March 1835. Also convicted on this day at Norfolk
Assizes were John Moss, Robert Blogg, Charles Wood and Edward
Symonds. George had no previous convictions and was sentenced to
transportation to Australia for Life. At thirty four years of age he
was one of the older convicts on the Royal Sovereign. In 1844, nine
years after his arrival in the Colony, he was issued with a Ticket
of Leave for the district of Bathurst. In 1849 he was granted a
William Baileywas born in Stroudwater, Somersetshire. He was
arrested in Bath probably in the summer of 1835 and convicted at
Bridgewater on 29th June 1835. According the the prison hulk records
at Ancestry, William was 15 years old when he was sentenced to 7
years transportation for housebreaking and stealing money. Also
convicted on 29th June were William Bulpin, George Wall, Thomas
Bulkin and Isaac Cottle. All were sent to Illchester prison before
being transferred to the Hardy convict hulk. According to the
indent, William Bailey was the shortest prisoner on board, standing
at just 2' 8 1/2" in height. William and Isaac Cottle were
transferred from the Hulk to the Royal Sovereign on 22nd July after
spending just two days on the hulk. William survived the voyage,
faring better than some prisoners who became ill with scorbitus.
William’s only illness in the 136 Days on board ship was catarrh for
which he was treated by the ships surgeon Francis Logan on 8th
On arrival in Australia William Bailey was assigned
to Scottish pastoralist Peter McIntyre at
Maitland and was perhaps put to work on one of McIntyre’s stations.
William received his Certificate of Freedom on 23 March 1843 aged 21
Thomas Balken was an
illiterate 16 year old errand boy when he was convicted of
housebreaking and stealing a silver spoon and butter knife on 29th
June 1835 at Bridgewater. Along with George Wall, Isaac Cottle and
William Bailey who were also convicted of various crimes that day,
he was sent to Illchester Prison before being transferred to the
Hardy prison hulk on 20th July. They were all transferred to the
Royal Sovereign two days later.
He was admitted to
Newcastle gaol from Merton
district in March 1842 and sent for trial. He was sentenced to
Cockatoo Island as punishment for a felony.
Married with two sons, 25 years
old Job Barnes was sentenced to 7 years transportation for stealing
sacking after being convicted at the Wiltshire Assizes on 7 March
1835. A farm servant before he was transported, he was assigned to
James McDougall at Patrick Plains on arrival. By February 1840 he
had been granted a ticket of leave by the Patrick Plains Bench of
Magistrates and by 1842 had received his certificate of freedom. He
may have been living in the vicinity of Black Creek in 1855 (Maitland
Mercury 26 September 1855)
alias John Martin
Described as a ‘man of colour’ with black woolly hair, Joe Bean
was a 21 year old house servant when he was convicted of stealing
pork at the Bermuda General Assizes. He was sentenced to 10 years
transportation to Australia, along with three other servants from
Bermuda, Abraham, John and Jim.
Joe Bean was assigned to
John McDougall in the Muswellbrook area and absconded from service
in August 1838. He managed to evade capture for a couple of months
however was apprehended and probably punished in October of that
year. He was living in Maitland in 1844 when he was convicted of
robbery and sentenced to twelve months in irons. He may have been
sent to the Bathurst district to serve his time as he received a
Ticket of Leave for the district of Bathurst in 1850. He received a
colonial sentence of 2 years to be served at Norfolk Island and so
did not receive another Ticket of Leave until 1855. This ticket was
issued for the district of Ipswich. Joe Bean died in 1858 (Sydney
Morning Herald 8 April 1858)
William Bean was born approximately 1813 in Kent, England.
On 26th July 1835 at the Sussex Assizes he was found guilty of
stealing sheep and sentenced to transportation for life. At 5’5 ¾”
he was taller than most of the convicts on the Royal Sovereign and
was described as having dark brown hair and eyes and blind in one
eye. He gave his occupation as farm servant and shepherd and was
assigned to James W. Low in the Bathurst district of NSW. William
received his ticket of leave for the district of Bathurst in 1844.
Joseph Bellamy was born in Bedminster,
Somersetshire in 1814. Joseph worked as a stockman and butcher. On
31 March 1835 aged 19 he was tried at the Somerset Assizes for
housebreaking. He had no previous convictions and was sentenced to
transportation for life. He was sent to Illchester prison to await
transportation. Joseph was one of few who suffered no illness
requiring medical treatment on the trip to Australia. In 1837 he was
assigned to Thomas Icely, a wealthy Sydney businessman, at Bathurst.
Icely had been granted 280 hectares of land in 1828 and as well as
this acquired the use of vast areas of land over the following
years. Joseph probably worked on Icely’s Coombing property at
Carcoar. The work was often arduous and Icely (or his overseers)
were known to use convicts to pull the ploughs.
received a Ticket of Leave for the district of Carcoar in February
1844 and a Conditional Pardon in March 1848.
Thomas Bellamy was employed as a
19-year-old glass blower in London when he was arrested for picking
pockets and sentenced to 7 years transportation. He was tried at the
Central Criminal Court on 6th April 1835. He was sent to Newgate
prison and transferred from there to the Leviathan hulk on 27th May.
On 22 July he was transferred to the Royal Sovereign for
transportation to New South Wales. He suffered no illness on the
voyage to Australia and on arrival was assigned to
Edward Keeley at Paterson NSW.
By 1840 he had received
his Ticket of Leave for the Paterson district and his certificate of
freedom was issued in 1843. Soon afterwards he married Margaret
Clarke who had given birth to their daughter Priscilla in 1842.
Margaret died in 1856 aged 46 years.
Bellamy was witness in a Court case in 1849
when four men Fry, Watts Evans and Hawkins were accused of stealing
tobacco from James Phillip's Bona Vista,
Paterson. He left the district in 1852, selling his furniture and
the lease on a paddock and equipment he had used in the tobacco
Joseph Biddle was convicted of highway
robbery at Berkshire Assizes on 28 February 1835. Also tried on
this day for highway robbery were 20-year-old William Smith and 20
year old Peter Plummer. Joseph was 18 when he was sentenced to 7
years transportation. Like many of his fellow convicts he had
several tattoos on his arms and body - SB, SB, JB .
received his Ticket of Leave in 1840 for the Port Phillip district
and applied for permission to marry Ellen Maddigan who had arrived
on the Aliquiss . By 1842 Joseph had received his Certificate of
Biggs was born in Essex in approximately 1815. He was a farm
labourer and shepherd when he was convicted of his second crime –
stealing linen. He was then sentenced to seven years transportation.
On the voyage to Australia Henry suffered from scorbutus (scurvy).
He was treated by surgeon Francis Logan in November 1835 and
Henry was assigned to John Ellis in Yass
and his ticket of Leave was issued by the Goulburn Bench for the
district of Yass in 1840. In 1853 Henry married Eliza Liddy in
Blogg was one of 33 convicts on board the Royal Sovereign in 1835
who had prior convictions. He was considered a ‘bad character’ by
the authorities and had already spent 6 ½ years in Bermuda as
punishment for his first crime. On 28 March 1835 he was convicted of
his second crime, housebreaking and stealing copper for which he was
sentenced to 7 years transportation. On arrival in the colony he was
to be kept at labour on the public roads.
In July 1841 he
absconded from the custody of a constable at Port Macquarie and his
description was posted in the Government Gazette: Rope maker aged 27
from Norfolk; 5' 7 1/2"; dark complexion, brown hair, grey eyes,
nose short and cocked, scar over right cheek, lost top of middle
finger of right hand, several scars on left arm, two scars knuckle
of forefinger of let hand.
Robert Blogg received his
Certificate of Freedom in 1842.
James Sevencroft Blomfield
James Sevencross (Sevencroft) Blomfield was born
approximately 1794. By far the most educated convict on board he
attended Cambridge University and had been a Minister of the Church
for 23 years before being tried at the Old Bailey and convicted of
In 1818 he had been appointed to the
Parishes of Beyton, Aldeburgh, and Triston cam Snape in Suffolk
where he lived with his wife and three children. He seems to have
had very illustrious connections, the Bishop of London, Charles
Blomfield being a relative who had once given his patronage for
James to travel to the Cape of Good Hope.
downfall commenced after promoting a book he was to write and
illustrate using information he gathered from his travels to the
Cape of Good Hope. Here he had spent time in charge of the sons of
Mr. Daniel, a Naval Officer. Back in England James began in 1831
taking subscriptions for his work. He travelled the countryside
visiting clergymen and other town officials asking for 5 shillings
subscription for his future work. James was ' a very fine looking
man of gentlemanly exterior and imposing address' and he managed to
continue collecting these subscriptions for over three years before
he came across Mr. Charles Douglas. Mr. Douglas lived in Claremont
Square, Pentonville and was working in his garden when James came to
call. Mr. Douglas was far too wily to be taken in by James and
declined to subscribe to his work, however it was not until the next
day that he found that his gold spectacles had disappeared. Coming
across James in the Strong room of the Tottenham workhouse he
questioned him about the spectacles and James admitted to pawning
them for 10 shillings after he found the spectacles in his hat. Mr.
Douglas wasted no time in calling the constabulary.
Constable Joseph Foster accompanied James to a pawnbrokers in
Grays-inn-lane near Kingscross kept by Mr. Burgess who positively
identified him as the person who pawned the gold spectacles. James
at this point denied stealing the spectacles saying they were in his
hat by mistake. Had he been a thief he said he could have plundered
to a considerable extent in the houses of the persons he visited to
collect subscriptions for his book. Why, he asked would he have
admitted to having the spectacles and taken the constable to the
pawn shop if he had meant to steal the spectacles? In this James
seems to be disingenuous. Perhaps this tactic had worked for him in
the past. His respectable appearance and connections may have
carried him through. This time however the authorities had twigged
to his duplicity and were not to be so easily hoodwinked. The Rev.
George Hudson Thompson, Minister of Trinity Capel, Tottenham had
subscribed to James' work for 5 /- and when he was told by an
acquaintance that there was a notice in the Times cautioning people
that a person answering James description was pursuing a course of
imposition by false representation, he was furious. He left
immediately to warn his neighbours against being similarly taken in.
While out on this mission he spotted James driving a 4 wheel chaise
and caused him to be taken into custody.
At this point he
must still have felt he would be believed. While he was undoubtedly
worried abut his reputation, he probably did not believe he would be
found guilty of any offence. He had, after all led a charmed life
for the last three years. He must though have been concerned for his
wife and child whom he had brought from Barnett with their maid
servant, and who were in dire financial straights. James continued
to plead his innocence throughout the hearing, speaking up for
himself at what he probably considered were the injustices of the
case - stating that the Magistrate had not taken into consideration
the number of subscriptions that had not been collected as many put
down their names that did not pay. And more desperately as the trial
went on - declaring that it had always been his intention to bring
out his work and that he had in fact prepared drawings expressly for
the purpose of embellishing it. He could produce the person who
engaged to print it and he had agreed with him for 1000 copies for
150/- and again - 'You will find the names of upwards 300 lawyers as
subscribers to the work and if I meant to practice any imposition
they are a class of men who would be very soon have found me out' .
He pointed out that he had been forced to pay great portions of the
subscriptions towards his necessities. The Magistrate was not to be
convinced, pointing out that after receiving subscriptions for so
large an amount James continued to collect more although the expense
of the work was trifling and the printers costs would have been well
covered. The Magistrate found that there was no moral doubt that
James' intention was to raise money by false pretences on the credit
of a work which it was more than probably never intended to bring
out however, legal proof of a guilty intention was not sufficiently
strong to found an indictment upon it the charge of fraud and so
would not be persisted in. However in the charge of stealing
spectacles the evidence was so strong that he had no choice but to
commit James for trial.
On hearing of the situation and
pleas to visit his ailing and now impoverished wife, the Bishop of
London, Charles Blomfield, directed that James' expenses for
visiting his wife be charged to his own expense. James was
accompanied to visit his wife and child by the constable of
Tottenham towards the end of June 1835 and soon after was conveyed
to Newgate prison to await his trial which took place at the Old
Bailey on 6th July 1835. James was sentenced to seven years
transportation and 23 days later departed on the Royal Sovereign
bound for Australia. Despite his age (41) he suffered no serious
illnesses on the voyage to Australia although in September he was
treated by the ships surgeon Francis Logan for Ringworm. His
appearance on arrival must have been very different to the swarthy,
fine looking gentleman who stood in the docks at the Old Bailey. His
complexion was sallow and he is described as being a full two inches
shorter than on previous occasions. His light brown hair had been
shaved. His convict garb would have been a sharp contrast to his
Clergyman's suit of black that he was accustomed to in London. He
must have been desperately worried about his family left behind and
like his fellow companions worried about what the future would
bring. Where would he be sent on arrival in the Colony? A well read
man, he would have an idea of the conditions that awaited him. This
knowledge would probably have been enhanced by other prisoners on
board some of whom were on their second transportation to Australia.
On his arrival in the Colony James found that he was to be
forwarded to the penal settlement at Port Macquarie. In 1836 in Port
Macquarie there were approximately 1300 people, 360 of them were
free settlers often living great distances from the settlement
itself. James travelled at times quite a distance from the convict
settlement and considered that outlying settlers in the district had
inadequate religious instruction and so in 1838, three years after
his arrival, petitioned the Governor to be allowed to provide
religious instruction in the form of lectures or readings to these
He considered the crime for which he had
been convicted quite trivial and still clung at this time to his
‘sacred calling’ and wished to improve the spiritual and moral
condition of those around him. This petition to lecture was denied
by the Governor and presumably James continued in his convict
occupation at Port Macquarie.
James was granted a ticket of
Leave for the District in 1840 and in 1841 applied for permission to
marry 38-year-old Catherine Hogan a convict who had arrived on the
Diamond. At this time he was living in the town of Port Macquarie. A
Certificate of Freedom was granted in 1842 On 7th May 1846 (in
England), his son Henry Sevencroft Bloomfield married Charlotte,
daughter of Captain Spencer of Kilfenora, Ireland.
The Registry of Flash Men is a journal with details of the criminal
underworld in Sydney during the 1840s. The volume was kept as an
official surveillance record by William Augustus Miles who was
Superintendent, then Commissioner, of Sydney Police in New South
Wales from July 1840 to July 1848.
John Bluford was born approximately 1815 to Mary (nee Priest)
and James Bluford. A stable boy in his native Bristol, he eventually
became the licencee of the Butchers Arms, a hotel at Largs near
Morpeth. Sentenced at Somerset Assizes on 31 March 1835 for
housebreaking, he languished at Illchester Prison before embarking
on the Royal Sovereign. Another prisoner, Joseph Bellamy was also
convicted of housebreaking at the same time as John. Both gave their
last abode as Bedminster, Somersetshire.
On arrival in
Australia John was assigned to Richard Jones at Paterson and in 1836
he married Marion McDonald. In 1838 aged 25, he applied for
permission to marry Marion McLean, a spinster, who arrived on the
Midlothian. They were married on 23 July 1838 by Reverend J. Dunmore
Lang at Scots Church in Sydney. John and Marion had three children -
Mary b. 1838, Eliza b. 1839 and John b. 1842 before John was issued
with his Ticket of Leave for the district of Maitland in 1844.
In March 1846, John now employed as a hutkeeper, at Andrew
Lang's Breeza, was tried at the Maitland Circuit Court for cattle
stealing. He was found not guilty, however was remanded in custody
on another charge of stealing an ox belonging to
Ruth Phelps. The Maitland Mercury reported that John Blueford
was ordered to be discharged from his bail, as the Solicitor General
informed the Court that the main evidence against the prisoner was
an approver, who, in a former case, had not been believed by a jury
and the Attorney General had consequently declined to prosecute.
By 1848 John was again applying for permission to marry – this
time to 20-year-old Margaret Thompson who had arrived on the
Portland. They were married by
Rev. G. K. Rusden in Maitland. By 1850 he had received his
conditional Pardon. In the 1850's he was licensee of the Butcher's
Arms at Largs John Bluford died aged 57 in 1872 at Largs.
Michael Bowker was 26 and a father of
three when he was convicted for stealing money. He was no hardened
criminal as this was his first conviction. Michael Bowker had been
employed as a cotton spinner in Lancashire His ancestors may also
have worked in a cottage industry from their home before the
invention of water powered machinery such as the spinning jenny that
came to dominate the industry. The resulting conditions for textile
workers as their working place changed from home based to work in
mills deteriorated. They worked long hours for very low wages.
Michael Bowker was convicted at the Chester Quarter Sessions 4
October 1833. Textile worker William Goss, who was to be transported
on the Royal Sovereign was also imprisoned with Michael in 1833,
eighteen months before they actually set sail for New South Wales.
Michael was sentenced to 7 years transportation and was assigned to
Joseph Hawdon at Campbelltown . He received a Certificate of Freedom
William Braddick was a 23 yr old violin player from Somerset. He was
sentenced to transportation for Life for sheep stealing. He was
assigned to Henry Hall at Yass.
Thomas Bragg, convicted of stealing a copper boiler
at the Essex Quarter Sessions in November 1833, was one of the 48
farm workers on the Royal Sovereign. He was 46 years of age and a
married father of seven. He is described as having white blotches on
the back of his lower right arm and scald marks below his knees. He
was one of many to suffer from scorbutus on the trip although was
not treated until 13 December when the ship had already docked. On
arrival he was assigned to Messrs Maccarthur at Camden.
obtained a ticket of Leave for the district of Stonequarry on 7
Bravon was born in Sussex c. 1815. He was twenty two years when he
was convicted of stealing handkerchiefs at the Portsmouth Quarter
Sessions on 6th April 1835. He was assigned to P. King of Penrith on
arrival. Three years later, the Government Gazette posted his
description when he absconded from Captain King - James Bravon per
Royal Sovereign aged 25, tried Sussex, brickmaker complete; 5' 10",
dark sallow complexion, brown and thin hair, chestnut eyes, two
middle front teeth in upper and lower jaws apart, two small moles
left cheek, JS seven stars inside lower right arm scar inside left
thumb, forefinger of right hand contracted. He received a Ticket of
Leave in 1840.
In 1846 he was admitted to Darlinghurst gaol
and sent to the iron gang at Wooloomooloo for 12 months for having
stolen 3 pounds from George Evans.
JJames Broadbent was a filesmith from Yorkshire and
was convicted of housebreaking at Warwick Quarter Sessions. His
Tattoos included - 7 stars, half moon man and flag and Sheffield
coat of arms, inside lower right arm. He was assigned to
John Erskine who was employed as Clerk to the Bench of
Magistrates at Maitland
Twenty-nine year old ribbon weaver from Coventry who was convicted
of stealing silk at the Warwick assizes. He was married with 3
children before transportation. Description: Missing upper tooth.
He received a Ticket of Leave for Goulburn district in 1844
Benjamin Bryant was
twenty years old - a boatman from Wiltshire when he was convicted of
stealing a coat in January 1835 and sentenced to 7 years
transportation. He applied to marry Susan White in Bathurst
William Balpin (Bullpin/Bulpin) was born in Durleigh, Bridgewater.
He was employed as a farm servant when he was convicted of house
breaking Somerset Assizes June 1835. He was sentenced to
transportation for Life. In the indent for the Royal Sovereign he is
described as being aged 22 years of age and having irregular front
upper teeth; tattoos - woman and EB inside lower right arm, woman
and EC inside lower left arm; 5 large indented scars back right leg.
He was considered a 'bad character' as he had been transported
before and was to be kept at hard labour on the roads on arrival in
In March 1842 he was reported as having absconded
from John Blaxland at Newington and of being apprehended in 1844. He
received a Ticket of leave for the district of Maitland in 1851
which was cancelled in 1852 for being absent from his district, and
Ticket of leave for the district of Ipswich in 1856.
Samuel Bunce (Bounce)
Worcestershire aged 44. He suffered from vertigo on the voyage to
Australia and died in the General Hospital Sydney soon after arrival
on 31st December 1835.
29 year old single farm labourer convicted of pig stealing
at Essex Quarter Sessions. He was assigned to
John Eales, Maitland and granted a
Ticket of Leave for the district of Maitland in 1841.
had a prior conviction of six months in 1835 when he was sentenced
to 14 yrs transportation at Suffolk Quarter Sessions for robbing a
store house. He was a 29 year old father of three and described as a
farm worker and illiterate.
He was granted a Ticket of Leave
for the district of Yass in February 1842.
I J K
P Q R S
U V W X
George Cawston was born
Norfolk and brother to William. His Ticket of leave was granted in
1843 for the district of Penrith. His ticket was cancelled 1847 when
he was found guilty of stealing a pair of boots and was restored in
Cawston and his younger brother George were tried for housebreaking
at Norfolk Quarter Sessions 13th January 1835. Life had already been
unkind to William, a farm servant, who was left with two sons to
raise when his wife died at a young age.
assigned to James Adair a settler at
Paterson and received a ticket of leave for the district of Paterson
on 13 January 1844, nine years to the day since he had first been
sentenced. The Paterson region had been taken up early in the
settlement of the area with land grants to ex military and settlers
with enough capital. William probably arrived in the Paterson area
by March or April a time when the farmers of the district were busy
preparing their fields for wheat sowing. Settlers had great power
over the convicts' lives. Some masters considered it an indulgence
to allow their convicts to work up to 10pm at night to earn extra
credit that they could exchange for tea, sugar or tobacco. Without
this the convict would have had to exist on the rations provided by
the Government which were inadequate. Settlers on the Paterson were
also known to conduct Divine services on Sundays. Although this was
a day free of labour the settlers/masters still had control over the
convicts and they were expected to muster at midday to attend the
services. This was done not only for moral benefit but to put a stop
to the convict wandering further afield on this day and indulging in
spirits, riot and ribaldry that rendered him unfit for duties the
next day. The convict, who would be on foot could not hope to travel
far enough unless he left at day break so the master used this as
another means of controlling his work force.
received his ticket of leave for the Paterson district he was then
able to work to provide for himself. On the 15 February 1849,
fourteen years after sentencing William received a Conditional
pardon. In 1851 he married Elizabeth Kendall.
John Charlewood was convicted of stealing a sheep in Surry
at the Surry Quarter Sessions on 9th February 1835. Also tried on
this day for sheep stealing was thirty year old farm servant John
Wicks. Stealing livestock was considered a serious crime and they
were both punished accordingly. John was sentenced to Transportation
for Life to Australia. When he sailed on the Royal Sovereign on 29
July he left behind a wife, two daughters and a son. While some
convicts on board the Royal Sovereign suffered little illness, the
Ships surgeon Francis Logan stated that John would not have lived
another two days at sea. He had become dangerously ill with scurvy
and was so weak he could not even sit up. His stomach was swollen,
his skin discoloured and his appetite gone. The surgeon administered
Lime juice and preserved meat with the zest, the current cure for
scorbutus, and when the ship landed John was sent immediately to the
hospital on shore.
John received a Ticket of Leave for the
Bathurst district in September 1844. He received a Conditional
Pardon in 1849.
Warwick in 1815, Occupation shoemaker. After transportation he was
sent to work in the Hunter Valley's Patrick Plains and the isolated
and lonely Liverpool
Ranges . The Liverpool Ranges lay beyond the boundaries of the
colony when William was assigned to John
Earl at Patrick Plains. John Earl
arrived on the 'Thalia' in the winter of 1823. He brought with him
upwards of £500 and extensive sheep farming experience. He was
granted 1500 acres and named his grant Glenridding. By spring of
1823 he had arrived at his holdings with his wife, children and
assigned servants to begin sheep farming. In 1837, 14 years after
his arrival in the colony, Earl was granted a license to depasture
stock beyond the boundaries of the colony. John Earl was just one of
many who quickly took up the land beyond the boundaries (nineteen
counties). These men were often wealthy and influential squatters
but also among them were clergymen, school teachers, publicans –
anyone in fact who could raise enough money for a flock and servants
to keep them. Governor Gipps introduced Squatter's licenses in 1836
and a £10 annual fee irrespective of the size of their tenure was
Arriving in 1835, William Clay may have been sent
to Liverpool ranges to work as a shepherd or hut keeper on one of
Earl’s stations. These runs or stations were manned by two shepherds
who looked after the sheep by day and a hutkeeper who maintained the
yards and hut and was responsible for the sheep by night. Their
living arrangements would have been in a bark roofed hut close by
the sheep enclosures. Usually the huts were 10 x 14 feet and made
with split slabs. They consisted of one room with a dirt floor. A
fireplace would be at one end and the sleep area consisted of beds
made on sheets of bark lifted off the ground by logs of wood laid
underneath the head and the foot. The lives of the hutkeepers and
shepherds were often miserable and isolated. Food and supplies were
often inadequate. William Clay remained in the Hunter Valley area.
In January 1844 aged 31 years old he received a ticket of Leave for
the district of Scone which had been recommended by the Commonwealth
Crown Land, Liverpool Plains. Sixty year old David Rose also
received his ticket of Leave for the Scone area recommended by the
Commonwealth Crown Land, Liverpool Plains.
a Provisional Pardon in May 1845, 1846 and 1847 and by February 1849
had received a Conditional Pardon. He possibly died in Quirindi, NSW
servant convicted of stealing sheep. He was assigned to J.S. Corse
at the Vale of Clywdd in 1837 and was issued with a Ticket of Leave
in 1844 for district of Bathurst and a Conditional Pardon in 1849.
Born in Essex
and convicted of sheep stealing. A Ticket of Leave was issued for
district of Queanbeyan in 1844 and a Conditional Pardon issued 1850.
Born in Shepton
Mallett, Somerset. A shoemaker's boy, he was convicted of stealing
poultry and on arrival in Australia was assigned to
Cyrus Matthew Doyle at Windsor. Israel Cottle died in 1888.
Of St. Austell, Cornwall. John Couch, a
labourer was convicted with John Hoskin Giles of stealing 100lbs of
tin ore, the property of John Williams and others. On arrival in
Australia, he was assigned to John Jones at Turee, Cassilis. He may
have been at Turee in 1837 when an assigned servant of Jones at
Turee, Edward Tuffts murdered Jones by stabbing him in the groin
with a pair of sheep shears.
A Ticket of leave was issued
for John Couch in 1840 for the district of Cassilis. He was probably
the John Couch who was fined 40/- or 2mths in prison for assaulting
Daniel McCarthy in 1849 in Maitland.
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Charles Davies (Davis)
Born in Southampton.
He was assigned to William Sharp in Sydney on arrival in Australia.
A description of him from the convict indent - 'Nose inclining to
left side, lost three upper front teeth, scar center forehead,
breast hairy, scar top of middle and 4th finger right hand, large
scar back of left hand, scar right eyebrow.'
He received a
Ticket of Leave for Maitland district in 1840.
Trade: Butcher and clerk. Jonathon Davis was
found guilty of embezzlement at Westminster Sessions of Peace. He
was assigned to John Dixon in Goulburn in 1835.
Certificate of Freedom was issued in 1842.
Fifteen year old errand boy convicted of picking pockets. On
arrival in Australian he was assigned to
Peter McIntyre at Maitland. He was
issued with a Ticket of leave for district of Maitland in 1842.
John Docking was a shepherd and farm labourer convicted of
stealing money at Norfolk. He could read and write and was issued
with a Ticket of Leave for district of Parramatta on 14th February
1840. He applied to marry Bridget Larkin in 1842.
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William Eyres was sentenced
to six months in prison in Wiltshire for larceny at age 19. On his
second offence two years later he was sentenced to seven years
transportation for stealing poultry. On arrival in Australia he was
assigned to Thomas Leiver at Richmond. His Ticket of Leave was
issued for the district of Windsor on 14th February 1840. He married
Mary Malone in 1842 and died in 1879 at Richmond.
Frederick Eley - 35 yr old
widower convicted of stealing a goose in Suffolk. His description -
red hair, red beard, grey eyes, arms freckled, 5' 5 1/".
Ticket of Leave was issued for district of Patrick Plains in 1840
and he received a Conditional pardon in 1842.
Thomas Ellis was a steam boiler
maker's boy. He was 16 years old and could read and write. He was
convicted of picking pockets in London. On arrival he was assigned
to James Hassall in Yass. He received a Certificate of Freedom 1842.
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Filewood was a brother of James Filewood, also a convict on the
Royal Sovereign. George was a boot maker aged 29 with a sallow
pock-pitted complexion, brown hair and grey eyes. He had lost his
front upper tooth. He was tried at Middlesex in 1834 and convicted
of stealing boots from his employer.
From the London Times:
Marlborough Street - Yesterday George Filewood, a journeyman in
the employ of Mr. Lloyd, boot and shoe maker No. 30 Coventry Street,
Haymarket was brought up for final examination, charged with having
plundered his employer at different times of a vast quantity of
property, and Susannah Filewood, his wife, was charged with Having
received the property, well knowing it to have been stolen. Upwards
of 2- pawnbrokers were in attendance with portions of the stolen
property, one of whom had no less than 38 pairs of boots and shoes
in his possession, pledged by the prisoner and his accomplices, and
by means of the pawn brokers between 100 and 150 pairs of boots and
shoes were brought forward and identified by Mr. Lloyd. The prisoner
had been somewhere about 18months in his service and from the dates
of some of the pledges it was quite evident he had commenced robbing
his master shortly after he got into his employ. The stock of Mr.
Lloyd being very extensive afforded peculiar facilities to the
prisoner to commit depredations and likewise to render detection
almost impossible. Suspicion, however, did arise against the
prisoner in consequence of his having been seen with a check in his
possession, and his having offered to lend a considerable sum of
money to his fellow workmen. These circumstances, coupled with
others of a general nature, led to the detection of the extensive
system of robbery carried on by him for so long a time with
impunity. Stephen Smith, shop man to Mr. Lloyd, said his suspicions
having been awakened, he determined to watch his movements closely.
On the Thursday before his apprehension he saw the prisoner attempt
to put a pair of boys shoes into his trousers pocket, but upon
observing that witness had his eye upon him he threw the shoes down
again. On Friday he again tried to pocket another pair of shoes, but
these he put down as soon as he saw witness watching him. On
Saturday he took a pair of gentleman's pumps from a heap on the
floor and unperceived, as he imagined, put them into his pocket.
Witness went up to him and asked him if he had any shoes in his
pocket to which the prisoner replied "Certainly not". Witness then
mentioned to him what he had seen, and the prisoner admitted he had
put a pair of umps in his pockets, but asserted they were old ones.
Ultimately he produced a pair of new pumps from his pockets, begging
forgiveness and saying he hoped witness would not tell Mr. Lloyd,
and that he might go home and be safe and rest happy. Witness
mentioned the circumstance to Mr. Lloyd on the following Monday who
caused the prisoner be taken into custody. Policeman C177 said he
went to 3 St. Albans place Lambeth where the prisoner lodged and
there found a pair of boots and a pair of shoes which Mr. Lloyd
identified. A duplicate for another pair belonging to Mr. Lloyd was
also identified. A more minute investigation being instituted, the
property already specified was found in the hands of the
pawnbrokers, pledged by the two prisoners and a person not in
custody. The cases of seven of the pawnbrokers were considered to be
sufficient, and their evidence only was taken. The greater part of
the others applied for permission to give up the property which was
not refused. The prisoners were ordered to stand fully committed but
they were directed to be brought up on the following week for a
purpose connected with the same offence. Mr. Lloyd begged leave to
put a question to the male prisoner respecting a large sum of money
which he understood was in his possession. Mr. Conant said Mr. Lloyd
might, if he pleased put the question, but he must caution the
prisoner not to make any reply which would criminate himself,
because he need not answer it if he chose. Mr. Lloyd then asked the
prisoner if he had not a considerable sum of money in his
possessions, as he had been informed that he the prisoner had
offered to lend one of the workmen 20 pound. The prisoner said he
had no money whatever. Mr. Lloyd then inquired about a check which
he had got changed. The prisoner gave an explanation which Mr. Lloyd
said he should be able on a future day to prove was untrue. By
advice of their solicitor, the prisoners declined saying anything
further, and were removed London Times 12 July 1834. 4a
George Filewood was assigned to James Atkinson at Parramatta.
His Ticket of leave was issued in 1840 however in 1848 he was
sentenced to six months in the iron gang after being convicted at
Sydney Quarters Sessions of stealing silver money in a dwelling.
was a hairdresser convicted of receiving stolen goods. He was
Assigned to H. Delion, Sydney. A Ticket of leave was issued in 1840
and cancelled in the same year for disorderly conduct. He married
Ann Willis in 1841.
Twenty five year old widower from Wiltshire and was employed
as a Letter sorter. He had no prior convictions and could read and
write. He received a life sentence for stealing hay. A Ticket
of Leave was granted in 1845.
Nineteen year old Suffolk farm labourer Robert
Fitch was convicted of house breaking at Suffolk Quarter Session on
8th April 1835. On arrival he was assigned to
John Marquett Blaxland at Patrick Plains and was issued with a
Ticket of Leave for the district of Cassilis in 1842. Robert Fitch
was a witness a at the trial of Thomas Grantham in 1844. Grantham
had been indicted for forgery in having uttered forged orders at
Jerry's Plains in August 1843 with intent to defraud
Richard Alcorn. Fitch
testified on Grantham's behalf, stating that although he could not
read well he knew it to be a 2 pound cheque on the Commercial Bank.
Married indoor servant and
groom convicted at Central Criminal Court in 1835. William
Taylor and George Fitness were indicted for stealing on the 22nd
March, 5 curtains, value 12s; 1 decanter, value 2s 6d; 6 glasses,
value 9s 4 cups value 6d; 4 saucers value 6d; 3 knives, value 6d; 3
forks, value 6d; 3 spoons value 3d; 3 brushes, value 2s; 1 curry
comb value 6d and 1 lamp, value 6d; the goods of Richard Keily, the
master of the said William Taylor. William Pearce. I am a policeman.
On 22nd March at 10 o'clock at night, I was in Cockspur street,
Charing cross about a quarter of a mile from the prosecutor's I met
Fitness carrying this carpet bag, with this property in it I asked
him what he was carrying he said his masters clothes - I asked him
where he brought it from - he said from a house in Pall Mall - I
asked him the number of the house in Pall Mall; he could not tell me
I said then I should take him to the station house - he said rather
than go there he would go back to the house he had brought it from -
as we returned he said he brought it from No 6 Pall Mall - we went
down Pall Mall and found that was false - I told him I should not
leave him till I saw whether he ws right or wrong - he then took me
to No. 6 Cleveland row which is the prosecutors - he rang the area
bell and Taylor came up the area steps to answer the bell - I said I
have stopped this man with a carpet bag, which he says is his
master's clothes, and that his master has been dining here' Taylor
said,' It is quite right, I am sorry you detained him, he ought to
have been home by this time with his master's clothes; the servant
girl came up and also said it was right I said, 'Then I shall let
him go; he got about twelve yards form the house when the prosecutor
came out of the street door, and asked what was the matter I told
him, and he said, "I know nothing about a carpet bag; where is the
man" I said, "There he goes" he hearing me speak to Mr. Keily,
turned into Russell Court. I followed but could not see him - I ran
to the end of James Street, but could not find him - returned, and
said I believed he had escaped (the gentleman said the court was no
thoroughfare, and he must be there - I returned again and called
brother officer to come with his lantern, and at last I saw him run -
I pursued after him he was making his way across St. James street, -
a man stopped him - I took him back to the court and asked him for
the bag he was carrying - he said he knew nothing of any bag - it
was found and brought to me - I took possession of it - I detained
him till Mr. Keily brought Taylor there in custody - the bag was
locked - it was broken open and the articles, named in the
indictment, found in it - the spoons are not silver. Cross examined
by Mr. Doane Q. Was Mr. Keily present when the bag was opened. A. he
was. Fitness was flurried when I stopped him - Cleveland row is
nearly in a line with Pall Mall the female servant also said, it was
all right - I am quite certain Fitness is the man. Mr. Richard Keily.
I live in Cleveland row. Taylor was my footman he had been so
between three or four months - I know nothing of Fitness - my
attention was attracted by the conversation with the officer, and as
so many robberies had been committed about that time I was
determined to see about it - I said no gentleman had dined at my
house that day - the moment Fitness heard me speak, he took to his
heels and went down the court, - I knew he could not get out of the
court it being no thoroughfare - he was taken at last, and I took
Taylor to the station house - the property in the bag is mine some
of it I swear positively to and believe it all to be mine. Cross
examined Q. What can you swear positively to. A. The glass was cut
to match some I had of the same pattern, and the number corresponds
with what is missing - I had not seen the curtains for a month - I
missed none of my plate but a tea spoon and two dessert spoons -
Taylor had the care of my plate the bag is not mine William Baker. I
am a policeman. I heard the alarm; I took Taylor into custody,
concealed behind the back kitchen door in the house. Taylor Guilty.
Aged 30 - transported for fourteen years Fitness Guilty. Aged 27 -
transported for seven years. George Fitness was assigned to
George Cox at Penrith. He died in 1837 in Windsor Hospital
James Flower was born in
Frome, Somerset. He was employed as a clothier and was convicted of
housebreaking when he was 19. He received a life sentence and was
incarcerated in Illchester Prison to await transportation
Farm labourer convicted of stealing cheese at Wiltshire Assizes.
His description was given as - sallow complexion with dark brown
hair. He was assigned to James Adair at Paterson and received a
Ticket of Leave for the Paterson district in 1843. A Conditional
Pardon was granted in 1848. Robert Fry came to the rescue of Mary
Dobson near Edward Gostwyck Cory's
estate at the Upper Paterson in June 1846 when aboriginal
Tommy Tombo attempted to rape her. She had been walking through
the bush picking tea tree for a broom when she was attacked. Robert
Fry heard her cries for help and came to her assistance. In 1849 he
was found not guilty of stealing tobacco from the factory of
Alfred William Phillips at Bona Vista. Witness at his trial was
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Shoemaker born in
Devonshire. He was assigned James Hall in Windsor on arrival in
Australia. A Ticket of Leave for district of Windsor was issued
in 1841. Richard Garland married Mary McAteer in Sydney.
Joseph Hoskin Giles
Cornwall. On arrival he was assigned to the
Agricultural company in Newcastle. He received a Ticket of Leave
Fifteen year old
chimney sweep from Surry. He could read and write and was convicted
of stealing linen at the Middlesex (Westminster) Session of Peace on
14th May 1835. His description was given as 4' 7 1/2 " with a dark
sallow complexion and brown hair and eyes. Right eye heavy. WC
inside lower right arm; glass, ES, inside lower left arm; 2 blue
dots back of left hand, mark of a burn left foot.
was assigned to Thomas Icely in Bathurst on arrival and received a
Certificate of Freedom in 1845.
23 year old farm Servant from Wiltshire convicted of highway
robbery. He was an Epileptic.
Thomas received a Ticket of
Leave for Yass in 1840 and a Certificate of Freedom in 1842.
William Goss was born in
county Westmeath. He was forty seven years old and employed as a
weaver. He was married with five children and was convicted of
receiving stolen fustion at the Chester Quarter Sessions in 1833.
His description included - 'Red whiskers, breast and arms much
freckled, top of fourth finger of right hand had contracted. '
William was assigned to the Hospital at Windsor on arrival. He
received a Ticket of Leave for district of Windsor in 1840. Index to
Convict Bank Warrants 1837 - 1870 - William Goss, Royal Sovereign,
Warrant no 40/64. Condition - Free, Reel 596. Item 4/4547
38 year old
warehouseman who could read and write when he was convicted of
stealing coats at the
Central Criminal Court on 11 May 1835. On arrival he was
assigned to J. Jamieson at Goulburn. A Ticket of Leave was issued
Soldier of the 47th Regiment convicted of desertion in
Gibraltar aged 21 years. He was born in Yorkshire and had a ruddy
complexion with brown hair and grey eyes and a scar above the left
cheek bone. John Green was assigned to Gregory Blaxland at Merton in
1836/37 and by 1840 assigned to John Blaxland. John Green was part
of a gang of bushrangers in the district of Gammon Plains in 1840.
The gang included James Martin, James Mason who were assigned
servants to Mr. Blaxland and James Walker, Thomas Kievers, James
Howard and Robert Rawson who were assigned to Mr. Bettington. They
committed robberies on 9th March and Green was possibly present on
the 23rd March when the house of Henry Pelham Dutton was robbed and
servant John Johnson shot dead. Read more about the gang
here He may have been the John
Green who was murdered by a blow to the head by Patrick Maloney
after a drunken brawl in July 1849 near Falbrook.
year old town labourer convicted of stealing clothes and sentenced
to 7 years transportation. Married with a previous conviction of 6
months, he had dark Sallow complexion with brown hair and hazel '
full ' eyes. William Greig was assigned to
William Cape at Brisbane Waters in 1836 and was employed at
farming work. He was also sent to work for Cape's sons when the need
arose such as at harvest time.
Convicted at Cornwall
Quarter Sessions on 6th January 1835 with Joseph Hoskin Giles, both
labourers of St. Austell, of stealing 300lbs of tine ore the
property of John Williams and others. Both Giles and Grose were
transported for seven years. Richard Grose was a 28 years old farm
labourer and miner and father of three sons when he was convicted.
On arrival, he was assigned to the
Agricultural Company and sent to work in their coal mine at
Newcastle. He received a Ticket of Leave for Newcastle in 1840.
Employed as a horse breaker in Surry. He was
19 years old when he was found guilty of stealing boots and
sentenced to 7 years transportation at the Surry Quarter Sessions.
His description included: Scar betwixt the eyebrows, large round
scar right temple, heart inside lower right arm, mark of chilblains
back of both hands, dove, JG hear, darts, and a wreath inside lower
left arm, long scar back of middle finger of left hand large burn
mark on right leg. He was found not guilty of robbing George Robely
of some silver in 1846 in Sydney. Catherine Barter was found guilty
of the crime.
Employed as a farm servant and shepherd. He was convicted of highway
robbery at the Wiltshire assizes and sentenced to transportation for
life. On arrival he was assigned to James Atkinson at Molongolo. He
was 20 years old and could read.
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Twenty nine year old chair and
cabinet maker convicted of stealing tea. Native place Kent and could
read and write. Dark pock pitted complexion and dark brown hair;
5'1"; On arrival Thomas Harley was assigned to James Templeton in
Thomas Harley died in Sydney General Hospital in
1837 aged 31.
was employed as a butler at the house of Charlotte Collins in
Marylebone. He was 38 and a father of five and could read and write.
Along with Martha Handcox, a lady's maid employed in the same
household, he was convicted at Central Criminal Court of robbery.
Read the full trial at The Proceedings of the
Old Bailey Online. They were both sentenced to transportation
for life. In the convict indents of the Royal Sovereign, his native
place was given as Staffordshire. He was 5' 4 3/4", and had a dark
complexion, brown hair and brown eyes. Cast outward in right eye,
carroty whiskers, raised mole on left cheek. William Hall was
assigned to Henry Dangar in 1836/37 at Invermein.
A Ticket of Leave was issued for the district of Scone in 1844.
William Harrington - twenty nine year old grocer
from Oxfordshire convicted at Surry Quarter Sessions of stealing
scales in 1835. William Harrington could read and write and was
married at the time of his conviction. In his notes it is recorded
that he was considered a bad character as he had been transported
before. On arrival in the Colony he was to be kept at hard labour on
the public roads. His description stated that he had a sallow and
pockpitted complexion with dark brown hair mixed with grey. His eyes
were hazel and the top of his head was bald. In 1836/37 he was
assigned to Goat Island. In November 1839 the Government Gazette
posted a wanted notice when he absconded from the service of Charles
Long* at Paterson. He was apprehended however absconded again the
following year in the district of Patrick Plains. By 1842 William
Harrington had been issued a ticket of leave for the district of
Paterson and for Windsor in 1843. *Charles Long may have been
Charles Towers Long, son in law of James Mudie
22 yr old blacksmith from
Wiltshire convicted of stealing hay. He was single and could read
and write. No previous convictions were recorded and he was
sentenced to 7 years transportation. George Harris was assigned to
Samuel Blackman in the Cook district in 1836/37 and received a
Certificate of Freedom in 1843. His description included: mole left
cheek, EBPW, 1834 inside lower right arm, 3 illegible letters back
of left wrist, anchor and H back of left hand, scar inside left
46 yr old
father of eight convicted of stealing geese. He was listed as a farm
servant, shepherd, well sinker and brickmaker. Native place -
Hampshire - convicted at Sussex Q.S. John Harris was issued Ticket
of Leave for district of Wollongong in 1840
30 yr old married father of two convicted of
sheep stealing in Suffolk. John Hazel was assigned to
James Hale at Patrick Plains in 1836/37
and was Issued with a Ticket of leave for district of Patrick Plains
Many of the convicts of the Royal Sovereign
had no previous convictions. This was not the case with Joseph
Headley who was an habitual criminal. When he arrived in July 1835
it was his second voyage to Australia as he had already been found
guilty of housebreaking in Norfolk and transported on the
Sesostris for seven
years. Even then aged 22 he already had two prior convictions. When
he arrived in Sydney on the Sesostris in 1826 he was assigned to the
Superintendent at the
Parramatta Factory. In the shipping indents which are completed
on arrival in Australia, he gave his native place as Sydney. By 1832
he must have been declared free as he travelled back to England on
the ship Portland. He found it difficult to stay out of trouble
however and by June 1835 he was again in Court in Norfolk, this time
charged with stealing boots.
He was once again found guilty
and sentenced to 14 years transportation. He was considered a
recalcitrant convict and on arrival was assigned to Goat Island.
Here convicts were constructing the Queens Magazine and barracks
from sandstone quarried from the eastern side of the island. Also in
the barracks area were kitchen and cooperage. These convicts worked
in ironed gangs. The building of the Magazine was not completed
until 1839 and when it was finished it measured 100ft. x 25 ft.
There were massive buttresses supporting an enormous arched roof.
Joseph probably worked on the Magazine until it was finished. He
received a ticket of leave in 1842 for the district of Yass so
possibly had been forwarded to that area to work on roads after the
Magazine was completed.
He seems to have stayed out of
trouble after this as in 1850 he received a Certificate of Freedom.
Richard and Henry Henley
Richard 19, and his brother Henry 17, were charged with
stealing nine chairs on 21 April 1835 from their employer Harriet
Augusta Tanner. The chairs were valued at 11 pounds 11 shillings and
made of Honduras wood. Harriet Tanner was a widow who made her
living by manufacturing furniture. She lived in New Street, City
Road and employed Henry on a casual basis. On the 21st of April,
Henry was employed to assist Mrs. Tanner move an easy chair and and
eight dining room chairs from Cheapside to High Street, St. Giles.
While Mrs. Tanner was conducting her business, Henry disappeared.
She returned to the truck to see Henry just turning into Oxford
Street. Although she tried to follow him, he managed to escape and
when he didn't return by 8 o'clock she notified the police. When the
police investigated, they found that Henry's brother Richard had
sold the furniture to William Smith who lived at No 94 York Street,
Richard and Henry pleaded guilty and
although Mrs. Tanner's brother Frederick Henry Brown gave Henry a
good character they were both sentenced to seven years
transportation. After arrival in Australia, Richard was assigned to
Edward Stanton in Raymond Terrace. He he obtained a Ticket of
Leave in 1840 for the district of Port Stephens, and applied to
marry Mary Chapman at Paterson. In 1842 he was issued with a
certificate of freedom.
Their two first children, Richard
Joseph and Henry were born in 1841 and 1845 while the family lived
near Singleton. When John was born in 1848 they were living in Pitt
street Sydney. When James William (1850) and Caroline Victoria, 1853
were born, Richard was living in Goulburn Street, Sydney and working as a
sawyer. Richard also tried his hand at goldmining and later became a
hotelkeeper at Wattle Flat where he died in 1855. He was buried at
Sofala and three years later his widow married James Dyson.
(Australian Biographical and Genealogical Records Series 1 1788 -
18 year old
weaver convicted of picking pockets. Convicted at Central Criminal
Court and sentenced to 7 yrs transportation. Robert Heyward was
issued with a Ticket of leave for Bathurst district in 1840
Standing No: 35-3029
Age: 20 Read and Write: Yes Religion: Protestant Single Native
Place: London Trade: bookbinders boy Crime: stealing coat Tried:
Central Criminal Court Sentence: 7 years Previous convictions: none
Height: 5’3 ¼” Complexion: sallow and freckled Hair: Dark brown
Eyes: dark chestnut Particular marks: Small hairy mole right check;
anchor, WR on upper, crucifix inside lower right arm; scar back of
right thumb, WR on upper, man smoking inside lower left arm.
Richard Hicks was convicted of robbery with violence at Millers
Forest in 1845. Select Hicks, Pyzer &
Wood to to find out more
seven year old labourer convicted of stealing clothing (one cap one
coat five waistcoats one pair of breeches 4 pairs of stockings and
three shirts) from the house of farmer Thomas Norris,. John Higgins
when testifying stated: 'as I was coming from Evingham across to
Burtle I was going home (and) I saw this bundle tied up in a rick
barrow. I took it up and put on the coat and hat and left my own in
the same place' He had one previous conviction of 6 months and was
sentenced to transportation for life.
He was assigned to
R.P. Jenkins at Berrima and received a ticket of leave for the
district of Yass in 1844
20 year old stable boy convicted of stealing a watch at Southhampton
Assizes. Assigned to G.H. Woodhouse at Yass 1836/37
Twenty four year old farm
servant John Hoare was convicted of Highway robbery at Southampton
assizes on 3rd March 1835 and sentenced to transportation for Life.
On arrival he was assigned to William Osborne at Cassilis and in
1844 issued a ticket of leave for the district of Windsor. This was
altered to the district of Maitland on 2 September 1844. He may have
been the John Hoare who was employed as a cook at the
Black Horse Inn at East Maitland
in 1847 and who was buried in the East Maitland cemetery in March
15yr old baker's boy convicted of stealing lace at
Devonshire Quarter Sessions. Assigned to Thomas Icely at Bathurst.
T/L issued in 1841. Cert of Freedom 1844
Native of Somersetshire aged 20.
Employed as Clerk to Bench of Magistrates. Convicted of robbing his
master and sentenced to 7 years transportation. Assigned to Liverpool
Hospital 1836. Ticket of leave issued for the district of Bathurst
in 1840. John Howard Twenty-five year old married farm servant
convicted of house breaking at Suffolk Quarter Sessions. Assigned to
William Lee at Bathurst
Thirty three year old ivory worker convicted of robbing his
employer. Assigned to
John Marquett Blaxland at Patrick Plains. Ticket of leave for
the district of Patrick Plains issued in 1839
Frederick Palmer Hulme
year old Frederick Palmer Hulme was convicted of stealing money from
his master. He was apprenticed to Mr. Hunter at 102 The Strand,
London as a compositors boy and when he stole the 'considerable sum
of money' at 10am on 17th April he fled to his uncle's residence in
Spitalfields. However a notice was placed in the Police Gazette five
days later giving his description as being dressed in black and of
stout build and he was soon apprehended. Frederick, born in
Warwickshire and christened on 2nd September 1817at Holy Trinity,
Coventry Warwick was the son of a school teacher, Herbert Allen Hulm
and his wife Ellen Louisa Palmer. Frederick had their initials
tattooed on his arm together with the date 18.8.1834. This was
Frederick's first conviction however he was sentenced to
transportation for Life.
Frederick was sent to the Port
Philip District after arrival. A notice was posted in the Government
gazette of 15 November 1837. - Robert Sowerby, Frederick Hulme and
Dominick Sampson had all absconded from C.H. Ebden at Port Phillip
in September 1837. Frederick had valuable skills and he was sent to
work in the government Printing Office in the 1840s. In 1843 he was
given a ticket of leave and allowed to remain in the district of
Sydney so long as he remained in the service of the Government
offices. He was considered one of the best compositors according to
William McRow of the government Printing Office. He held a
Government ticket of leave and was paid one shilling and 9 d. per
diem. When he left the printing office in May1843 his payment of 1
shilling and 9d. ceased.
In 1842 when Frederick was 24 years
old, he applied to marry Elizabeth Jane Henderson who had arrived on
the Heber aged 22. They married on 8th November 1842 in Sydney and
their first son Charles William was born 1842 at Parramatta, quickly
followed by George Herbert who was born in 1843 in Sydney. On 11
March 1844 his ticket of leave was altered for Queanbeyan and
Frederick and Elizabeth's next two children Ann Isabella and
Frederick Cornelious were born in Duntroon in 1845 and 1848.
Frederick received his Conditional Pardon in 1848. He died on 3
January 1863 in Swan Hill Victoria when the eldest of his four
children was twenty one years old. Many of his grandchildren were
born in the Wagga Wagga and Junee districts.
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Native place: Newcastle upon
Tyne. Assigned to John Hickey at Maitland
Born in Suffolk. Assigned to James
Born Essex. Assigned Thomas Hyndes, Sydney.
John Jennings alias Stadthurst
Scene and Herald painter, midshipman and preacher born in Lemington,
Hants. In February 1835, the Police Gazette carried a notice for
John Jennings apprehension after he absconded from his lodgings at
No. 1 Margaret - Buildings, Bath, several days earlier stealing a
large Bible valued at £5 and other property consisting of a
decanter, a quantity of drinking glasses and glass sugar basin
belonging to Mr. Gregory. He was also accused of stealing a watch
belonging to Leonard Cozens. He was 24 years old about 5'3" dark
complexion, the mark of gun powder about his right ear and cheek,
wearing a black frock coat, black waistcoat, black or mixed trousers
and crape on his hat; he was seen the same day he absconded on the
Cheltenham Road and was apprehended at Marlborough within a couple
of weeks At his trial Thomas Graham stated that the Bible in
question was his property and he lent it to Jennings on Monday the
26th January, as Jennings was in the habit once a week of having a
number of persons coming to his room to hear him preach and had told
Graham that his own was so small he could not read out of it. He was
said to be a Preacher of the Baptist persuasion and preached at a
chapel on Rush Hill every Sabbath Day.
Jennings was sentenced to 7 years transportation and was assigned to
the government in the Port Macquarie district on arrival.
Age 21. House servant from Bermuda.
Tried 24 July 1834 and sentenced to 14 years transportation for
stealing money. Ticket of Leave for Maitland district
Age 36. Married with three children. Groom. Tried at Bermuda
quarter sessions 24 July 1834 and sentenced to 14 years
transportation for stealing money.
19 year old labourer from Surrey
convicted of robbing his master. Find out more at
Central Criminal Court June 1835. On arrival in Australia he was
assigned to William Brookss
Mary Clement who had arrived on the
Sir Charles Forbess soon
after receiving his ticket of leave. In 1843 Mary was charged with
gross insolence and disorderly conduct on premises of
George Jackson at Newcastle and
sentenced to 14 days solitary confinement.
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Jacob King was born in
Cambridgeshire - He was twenty two when convicted of stealing
poultry at the Norfolk Quarter Sessions on 13th January 1835. He was
sentenced to transportation for life. Jacob King was listed in the
New South Wales Government Gazette in June 1838 as having absconded
from William Lithgow at Lake George three months previously. He was
Issued with a ticket of leave in 1846.
19 year old Chimney sweep from Surrey
convicted in May 1835 for stealing clothing. He was sent to
Horsemonger gaol. A Certificate of Freedom was issued in 1843. His
description included - a Scar top of left side of forehead, scar
under left ear, scar cap of left knee, scar outside small of right
Keevil was born in Kilmington Somerset. He was convicted of stealing
a calf when he was 52 and when he departed England he left behind
five children. He was granted a Ticket of Leave for district of
Bathurst in 1844. Description : Lost canine teeth in upper jaw
and left side of under jaw. Forefinger of right hand contracted
Farm servant aged 28
convicted of stealing grain. His father had been sent to Van
Diemans Land in 1815.
John Kemp was issued with a ticket of
leave for the district of Bathurst in 1840.
Native of Cornwall -
Convicted of cattle stealing with Henry Symonds and Samuel Symonds.
Thomas was a farm labourer aged 21 and was single. He was sentenced
to transportation for life.
Boot-maker convicted at the Middlesex Session of
Peace of robbery of lodgings. 5' 8" with dark yellow complexion,
dark brown hair mixed with grey and dark chestnut eyes. The top of
his head was bald. Issued with a Ticket of leave for district of
shoemaker. Convicted of house breaking at the
Central Criminal Court in April 1835 and sentenced to
transportation for 7 years.
Born in Warwickshire.
Convicted of stealing poultry at Warwickshire Quarter Sessions and
sentenced to 7 years transportation. Ticket of leave issued for the
district of Bathurst.
Died at sea July 1835. Aneurism
Twenty two year old George Knight was
convicted of embezzlement at the
Old Bailey in September 1834. He had been employed as a sawyer,
baker and labourer previously. Description: Height 5’ 5 ½”Hair Brown
Eyes, Chestnut, Particular marks: Cast inward right eye, small
dimple in chin, scar left side of nose, scar back of right side of
neck; SK on upper. GKJH lower left arm; 3 dots back of left hand
George Knight died at 20 mile hollow stockade, Pitnacree in 1840.
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John Lake, a 21 year old cowman
from Chatham was indicted for stealing a cow valued at 9 shillings
from John Salter. John Salter was a respectable farmer from Notting
Barns in Kensington who had placed his cow and its calf safely in
one of his fields in the Harrow Road on 15 January 1835. This was
the last he had seen of the cow. On the 19th January, John Lake and
his accomplice, Francis Davis aged 15 took the animal to Mr. Barker,
a salesman in Smithfield, saying that a Mr. Westbrook had requested
Barker to dispose of the cow. They left the cow with Barker for the
afternoon and in the evening returned to find that the cow had not
yet been sold. They decided to take the cow and leave in at the
green yard at Paddington. Here they claimed that it was a stray cow
and therefore claimed a reward for taking care of it. The keeper of
the yard refused to reward them however did give them 1 shilling.
For this Lake abused the keeper and told him if they had taken it to
Kensington they would have got 5 shillings for it. This led to the
two thieves' undoing as it led to the discovery of the owner. Lake
and Davis were subsequently taken in to custody and on the 2nd
February 1835 were placed before the bar at the Old Bailey. Francis
Davis managed to produce several people who could give him a good
character. This worked very much in his favour as he was acquitted
of the charge, the jury believing him to have been in the dupe of
the older Lake.
John Lake was sentenced to transportation
for life for his part in the theft.
Groom from Yorkshire. Certificate of Freedom issued in 1842
Richard Lee Married horse-dealer from Northamptonshire. Assigned
to John Brown, Bathurst
Fifteen year old farmer's boy. One of five convicts
from the Royal Sovereign who was assigned to Thomas Icely at
Ludlow was born in Compton Dando. In March 1835 he was sentenced to
transportation for life for housebreaking. On arrival he was
assigned W. Bayliss.
New South Wales Government Gazette 1838:
Ludlow alias Ludwell, John per Royal Sovereign. aged 32.
Somersetshire, marine, 5' 8 1/4 " sallow and pockpitted complexion,
brown hair, brown eyes, raised mole right side of upper lip, mermaid
inside lower right arm, blue ring middle finger of right hand, and
scar back of hand mark of a wound on left knee. absconded from
J.H. Boughton, Paterson since 26th
November. He was on the run for five months before he was captured.
He was issued with a ticket of leave for the district of Paterson in
1844 and a conditional pardon in 1848.
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or calling Labourer and soldier. Patrick Mangan was born in
Tipperary, Ireland and was 27 years old when he was Court-martialled
in Jamaica for falling asleep while on post . He was sentenced to 14
Patrick Mangan was issued with a
Ticket of Leave for Bathurst district in 1842.
Blackmsith's boy convicted of stealing a box
in May 1835 at the Old Bailey He was issued with a Ticket of Leave
for Geelong in 1841
Born in Sussex, William Martin was a 35 year old father of five
when he was convicted of poaching. He had been transported before
and was considered to be of bad character. He was assigned to Goat
Island on arrival.
John Mason was a shoemaker and groom. He was 22 when he was
convicted of highway robbery and sentenced to 7 years
transportation. He was assigned to Alexander Busby in Cassilis in
1837 and granted a ticket of leave for the district of Cassilis in
aged 25 from Dorsetshire. Convicted of stealing wool. When he left
England on the Royal Sovereign he left behind a wife and daughter.
He was assigned to Michael Brennan in Appin in 1837 and received a
ticket of leave on 24 March 1840 and Certificate of Freedom in 1842.
Father of 8
convicted for stealing a barrel of porter. Assigned to A. Campbell,
Bathurst and received a ticket of leave in 1840
Fifty five year old father of 8 when he was
convicted of stealing a saddle and bridle at the Surry Quarter
Sessions. Patrick Millett was assigned to Thomas Arndell at Windsor.
Michael Mooney was convicted of
assault at the Warwick Quarter Session in January 1835. He was 41
years old and could read and write. He suffered from Scurvy on the
passage out. His description included: Scar left cheek, breast and
arms hairy, scar inside right wrist, scar knuckle of 4th finger of
right hand, scar over left eyebrow, scar on top of chin. He was 5'6"
with a dark sallow complexion and black hair. He was issued with a
Ticket of Leave Port Macquarie in 1841 and Applied to marry Mary Dankin in
John Moss was
convicted at the Norfolk assizes of housebreaking and sentenced to
transportation for life. He was 21 and could read. A Ticket of leave
was issued in 1845 then cancelled as he had been punished in 1844.
Re-issued in 1846.
was 36 years old when he was convicted of stealing at the Essex
Quarter Session in January 1835. He had no prior convictions and was
sentenced to 14 years transportation. He was assigned to the
Agricultural Company and issued with a ticket of leave for the
district of Port Stephens in 1841 and for Murrurundi in 1845. In
1847 he was convicted of Cattle stealing.
Job Hatherall, a stockman in the employment of
Captain Dumaresqq, sold a bullock to Mr.
Francis Little. It was a red bullock inclined to brindle, brand
FS off rump JH with D under of off ribs and 68 on off shoulder and
an indistinct brand on the off rump apparently DNI. It was a working
bullock called Captain. In September last Hatherall met the prisoner
on Doughboy Hill having the bullock in his team on the off side . He
asked prisoner where he got the bullock and prisoner replied that it
was his own. Hatherall then said that it was Mr. Francis Little's
property, when prisoner said that he was only bouncing. Hatherall
then went to look at the bullocks brand, when prisoner told him that
he was only a poor man, and begged him to say nothing about it; that
one of his team had died and he was obliged to get another to carry
him on the road. Hatherall told him that the bullock was the
property of Mr. Francis little of Invermein and unless it was given
up there and then other steps would assuredly be taken. Prisoner
said he could not get on without the bullock and would not give it
Mr. Purefoy urged for the defence that there was no
felonious taking in as much as there was no intention on prisoners
part to make away with the bullock, but merely to use it to take him
on the road for a time, when he afterwards intended to return him.
He also questioned the identity of the bullock not being fully
proved by the witnesses. The Chairman, in summing up said that if
the jury were convinced that the prisoner had taken the beast off
the road merely to have a turn out of him they certainly could not
find him guilty of stealing, but the evidence went to rebut such a
presumption inasmuch as he had claimed the bullock as his own, when
first taxed with stealing it The jury after a short deliberation,
returned a verdict of guilt and the prisoner was sentenced to be
worked in irons for three years.
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John Neal was
employed as a farm servant in Wiltshire. He was sentenced to
transportation for life for highway robbery. He could read and write
and was assigned to the Cassilis district
Twenty year old stable boy who was
convicted of housebreaking in April 1835. George Newman was assigned
to John Bingle at Invermein on arrival
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Assigned to Hamilton Hume
at Appin. He was granted a Ticket of Leave for district of Yass in
1843 and a Conditional pardon in 1849. John Overall died 1854 Yass.
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Description - Height 4’ 81/2” Complexion: sallow and pockpitted
Hair: Brown Eyes: Hazel 'Stout made' with carrotty whiskers. William
Palmer was convicted of stealing a stove at the Surry Quarter
Sessions in May 1835. He was assigned to
Grayson Hartley at Dungog, and
granted a Certificate of Freedom in 1850
Thirty-six year old single
drover sentenced to 7 years for embezzlement. Assigned to J. Grant
Description: Height: 5’2 ¾” Complexion: Brown Hair; Dark brown Eyes:
hazel grey Particular marks: JPGPESTBRP, back of lower right arm,
JPAPMCACHSJP back of lower left arm; scar back left leg. James
Pedder was born in Middlesex. He was employed as a racing groom when
he was convicted of highway robbery at the Wiltshire Assizes in
March 1835 He was assigned to John H.
Boughton at Paterson on arrival and died at Paterson in 1843
46 year old father of seven convicted of stealing flour.
Suffered from vertigo and scorbutus on ship.
He was issued with a Ticket of
leave for the district of Port Macquarie. Possibly sent to Norfolk
convicted of highway robbery. Stealing from John Eaton at Wargrave,
3s and two knives. Sentence of Death Recorded at Oxfordshire Lent
Assizes. (Jackson's Oxford Journal 7 March 1835). Peter Plummer was
assigned to J & F Cooper, Maneroo. A Ticket of leave was issued in
John Pople was
21 when he was convicted of stealing a waistcoat in London. He had a
prior conviction and was sentenced to transportation for 7 years. He
was Assigned to Aspinall Brown & Co, Bathurst. His description
included: scar right cheek bone, scar over left eyebrow; man, woman,
Harriet, anchor, inside lower arm; crucifix, EB, Abraham Morgan,
Bird lower left arm; six dots back of forefinger and thumb of left
from Yorkshire convicted of bigamy. Allowed to proceed to Hobart
town in company with Rev. Orton.
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Bricklayer from Hampshire
convicted of stealing brass taps. Tried at Wiltshire Quarter
Sessions and sentenced to transportation for 7 years. Obtained
ticket of leave in 1842.
24 year old father of two from Yorkshire who was convicted
of stealing poultry. In August 1839 the Government Gazette recorded
that Rawson had been apprehended after absconding from the bridge
party at Anvil Creek near Maitland. His description was posted -
Wheelwright and house carpenter and sawyer aged 30 from Yorkshire.
5' 6 1/4"; ruddy complexion; brown hair, hazel eyes, mole on right
breast bone, tattoos.
James Thomas Richards
Twenty one year old waterman convicted of robbing a till. Assigned
to Richard Sharpe at Windsor. He also served a colonial sentence at
Norfolk Island. Granted a Ticket of Leave for the Goulburn district in 1847.
Married copper miner
from Cornwall convicted of stealing a letter seal in March 1835. His
description from the indent - Height: 5’4” Complexion: Dark sallow
Hair: Brown Eyes: Hazel grey Particular marks Scar upper part of
nose, another inner corner of right eyebrow, ship right breast, sun,
half moon, stars, INRA inside lower right arm; man woman MDIR inside
lower left arm; large scar outside left leg. John Richards was
assigned to the
Australian Agricultural Company
Select here to read some of the punishments recorded in the
Newcastle Bench Books
Twenty Five year old peddler from Middlesex. Convicted of
stealing a watch at Surry Quarter Sessions 8th September 1834 His
description in the ship indent included: Nose short, eyebrows
partially meeting, 11 dots and + back of left hand, blue spot back
of middle finger of same. 2 round scars outside small left leg. He
was assigned to Crawford Logan Brown
at Dungog in 1837
Sixty year old bargeman from
Somersetshire. Convicted in March 1835 and sentenced to
transportation for life. Ticket of leave issued for Scone in January
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House painter born in Dublin. Sentenced to death for robbery.
Commuted to transportation for life. A notice was posted in the
Government gazette of 15 November 1837. - Robert Sowerby,
Frederick Hulme and Dominick Sampson had all absconded from C.H.
Ebden at Port Phillip in September 1837.
Chimney sweep born in Ireland.
Assigned to George Cox, Penrith Height: 5’ 1” Complexion: Dark Hair:
Dark Brown Eyes: Hazel Particular marks: MS, anchor inside lower
right arm, scar left eyebrow, scar back of middle finger right hand
,scar outside left leg. Ticket of Leave issued for the District of
Mudgee in 1844. 44/203
Carpenter and pumpmaker aged 27 convicted of poaching and
sentenced to 7 years transportation. Assigned to William Wallace,
St. Vincent. Ticket of Leave issued for district of Braidwood. He
married Martha Ibberson in Sydney in 1844.
Mercury reported the following incident when Martha Shearman was
robbed by bushrangers at Miller's Forest. Two of the men,
Richard Hicks and Charles Wood also
arrived on the Royal Sovereign in 1835 Martha Shearman of Millers
Forest, deposed that one night in the beginning of July her house
was entered by three men, one of whom held her by the throat for
upwards of two hours, while the others were rummaging her house: she
bore the marks of the ruffians grasp for many days afterwards. She
could not positively identify the men as it was too dark at the time
to distinguish their features, but several of the articles found in
Hick’s bundle she positively identified; and her evidence in this
respect was corroborated by William Holder, her brother in law, who
identified some combs as part of a dozen he had brought from
Braidwood and given to Mrs. Shearman. Maitland Mercury 30 August
John Smith was born in Cambridge where he was employed as a brick
maker's labourer. He was convicted of stealing bottles at Cambridge
Assizes. Had been flogged previously. He was assigned to Alexander
Berry at, Illawarra on arrival in Australia
John Smith was born in London. He was a
Jeweller and was convicted of picking pockets for which he was
sentenced to 7 years transportation. He Received a Ticket of Leave
for the district of Windsor in 1844 and a Certificate of Freedom in
was born in Sussex. He was employed as a pedlar's boy. Height: 5’2
½” Complexion: Ruddy Hair: Light Eyes: Eyes Particular marks: small
scar over left eyebrow, 3 small dark moles, back of right cheek,
finger nails short, scar back of forefinger of left hand He was
convicted of stealing coals and sentenced to transportation for
year old old farm boy convicted of stealing beer. A Ticket of Leave
was issued for Maitland district in 1842. Ticket cancelled 1844 for
robbery and being absent from his district.
Clerk in a medicine warehouse.
Convicted of stealing a miniature portrait. Absconded from N. Powell
at Queenbeyan in 1838
Twenty year old pedlar from County Longford. Convicted of
highway robbery and sentenced to transportation for life. He was
assigned to Lawrence Myles at
35 year old widower. Vetinary
surgeon and seaman convicted of forgery Height: 5’ 3 ½ Complexion:
sallow Hair: Brown mixed with grey Eyes: Grey and full Particular
marks: Nose long and thin, mark of an anchor inside lower right arm.
Burn mark right wrist, cross scar knuckle of middle finger of right
hand, scar back of little finger of left hand, scar right shin A
notice was posted in the Government gazette of 15 November 1837. -
Robert Sowerby, Frederick Hulme and Dominick Sampson had all
absconded from C.H. Ebden at Port Phillip in September 1837
Born in Cambridge.
Thirty nine year old carpenter and joiner convicted of
housebreaking. Assigned to W. Lucas, Illawarra.
Farm servant from
Dorsetshire convicted of stealing wool. Absconded from Thomas
Collins at Bankstown and apprehended in December 1836. Assigned to
the Gaol in Sydney in 1837. In August 1839 absconded from Collins
again. His description was posted in the Government Gazette - 5'6"
ruddy complexion, light brown hair, grey eyes, chin declining,
slight scar ball of right thumb, large round scar back of outer
angle of right leg.
Weaver aged 25. Assigned to Richard Jones, Patrick Plains
Linen draper. Sentenced to 14 years
for street robbery. Spent 6 1/2 years in Bermuda. Ticket of leave
issued for the district Port Macquarie in 1842.
Born in Evercreech, Somerset. He was assigned to Mineral
Surveyors Dept. Sydney.
Once the silk weavers of Spitalfields, London led a gentle
life. They were sought after artisans with a comfortable living as
employment rates were high. They had leisure hours on Sundays and
garden beds with flowers to attend to. Many were descended from the
French weavers who emigrated in the 17C. As more factories opened up
in London, competition became greater. Factory owners undersold each
other. They paid fewer wages and workers’ hours went up. The workers
were obliged to take whatever price they could get. They realized
that if they did not take the work offered there would be someone
else who did. There was also increased competition from foreign
markets. By the 1830’s the value of silk manufacture in Great
Britain was £10,480,000. Approximately 9,300 looms were at work with
five people working every two looms. Workers were at labour for up
to 14 hours per day. Many could not find work at all. They lived
little better than paupers often living eight people to a house.
They were lucky to eat meat once a week. The children were too
valuable as weavers to be sent to school so many, like Thomas Skuce,
Weavers' houses often consisted of two
rooms on the ground floor and a workroom above. The workroom always
had a large window so that light could be maximized. Entire streets
in Bethnal Green consisted of these houses constructed especially
for weaving purposes. Many weavers lived only in one room. Up to
seven or eight people may have worked and lived in one room. They
would be without a wardrobe, cupboard, sink or sanitary
arrangements. The looms, their only source of income took up most of
their valuable space. Beyond the tiny income from the looms lay
destitution and crime. This was the life that Thomas Skuse lived in
Bethnal Green with his sister Elizabeth, brothers Richard and
Samuel, and niece, all silk weavers. They lived at No. 8 Half
Nicholl Street – William Goode was their landlord.
December 1834, Thomas had been out of work for some time, however
his sister Elizabeth and brother Samuel were weaving a piece of silk
for Mr. Thomas Field Gibson. When they completed and returned the
piece he would pay them their wages, although their wages would be
not be anything like what the silk was worth. Arthur Dear, also
employed by Mr. Thomas Field Gibson estimated Elizabeth’s silk to be
worth about 21 pounds. Elizabeth did not go to sleep on the 2nd of
December until 11pm. Like many of the silk weavers she had to work
long arduous hours just to make ends meet. She left her silk
‘perfectly safe in the loom, bolted the street door and tied her
bedroom door with a string’. When she awakened at seven o’clock the
next morning the work was gone as well as three rollers that the
silk was rolled on. Thomas also was nowhere to be found. Thomas had
taken the silks to William Millwood who lived in Rose lane late that
night. William Millwood was suspicious and asked Thomas if he had
stolen the silk to which Thomas replied ‘No I have not; I am going
to take them to the warehouse in the morning’. Present at Millwoods
that night was Frederick Starbrook who was later to be accused with
George Taylor (both found not guilty) of receiving the stolen silks.
Thomas took the silks away the next morning leaving the
rollers with Millwood and Starbrook who when they heard that a
policeman was coming down the street threw the rollers in the privy.
Starbrook later met Thomas’ brother Nathaniel in the street who
asked Starbrook if he knew of the robbery and Thomas’ whereabouts.
Starbrook replied that Thomas had gone into the country to make a
few pounds after staying at the Black Bull at Highgate. When Thomas’
sister Sarah Plummer asked Thomas of the robbery saying it would
clear their sisters reputation if he confessed to the robbery,
Thomas admitted that he had taken his sister's silk and that George
Taylor had taken Samuel’s silk cutting them away from the loom late
on the night of the 2nd of December. In his defence Thomas stated
that the next day after the robbery he had been out of work for some
time and had gone into the country to make a few pounds with his
songs. He stated that he had almost a hundred songs. George Taylor
went with him to sell the songs. When Thomas returned he found his
mother’s shop empty. He did not, he says, trouble his head about his
sister. Certainly he did not go back to live with his sister
Elizabeth and their brothers. He was arrested by policeman Joseph
Cricks at the Fryingpan public house in Brick lane in the middle of
December. It seems that Thomas was discharged after being arrested
because in the following April, on the 15th he again stole some
silk. This time it was 83 yards and 1 roller valued at 12 pounds
from the house of his sister Sarah and her husband Robert. The silk
belonged to Robert. Perhaps Sarah and Robert had taken Thomas into
their home when he returned from selling his songs. This time Thomas
pleaded guilty and was sentenced to be transported for Life on the
11 May 1835 at the Central Criminal Court. He was never to see his
brothers and sisters again.
At age 22 he was assigned
to J.R. Hume in Yass and received a Ticket of Leave for this
district in 1844. The Ticket of Leave was cancelled in 1857 for
being absent from his district. Thomas may have died in Inverell in
1879 aged 64.
While the appalling conditions of the silk
weavers led many like Thomas to a life of crime, many others
resisted. They continued to eke out their existence day-by-day,
piece-by-piece with destitution always close by. Nathaniel, Thomas’
brother who searched for Thomas after he robbed their sister
Elizabeth, remained in London all his life. Born in Kidderminster
Worcestershire in 1814, he was taken into the Whitechapel Union
Workhouse, South Grove, Mile End Rd, Mile End Old Town, London, in
1881 and still gave his occupation as weaver. The decision for him
to enter the workhouse was probably not easy. He may have been too
ill to support himself, weighed down by the years of hard toil and
inadequate food. Perhaps he had no family who could care for him in
his old age. His life span outlasted that of Thomas although
probably not by very many years.
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Gilbert Cory, Paterson. See George
Fitness for an account of Taylor's trial
Silk weaver from
London convicted of stealing sashes and sentenced to 7 years
transportation.. Ticket of leave issued for Bathurst district in
1840 and Certificate of Freedom in 1842.
Farm labourer aged 21 from Warwickshire.
Convicted of stealing copper in January 1835. Previous sentence of
death recorded. Assigned to N. Lawson, Bathurst.
Type founders boy. 5'3 with dark
ruddy complexion and dark brown hair. His tattoos included :EP,
heart, 2 darts. H7WTPG lower right arm; child, HTJTRTJTEP, lower
left arm He had a scar on the bridge of the nose Following is an
account of his trial: 'Henry Tudor was indicted for stealing, on the
1st of April 1 handkerchief, value 5s.; the goods of Robert Gibson.
Robert Gibson. I live in the Old Bailey. On the 1st of April, I was
walking up Fleet street - I felt something at my pocket - i put my
hand into my pocket, and my handkerchief was gone - I turned and saw
the prisoner - I said he had taken my handkerchief - he said he had
not - he was close behind me. Robert Mason ( City Police constable
No. 91). I know the prisoner by sight - I saw him on the 1st of
April. about twenty minutes after four o'clock, walking behind this
gentleman - I watched him, and saw him draw a red coloured silk
handkerchief from the gentleman's pocket. and he gave it to another
person - I could not get across in time enough to take them both,
but I took the prisoner, as the prosecutor was talking to him.
Prisoner. When you came up, you asked the prosecutor what he had
lost? Witness; No, I said directly, that I saw you draw the
handkerchief The prisoner put in a written defence, declaring his
innocence Guilty. Aged 17 - Transported for seven years.'
was issued with a Ticket of leave for Patrick Plains in 1840 and
died at Jerry's Plains.
Ironmonger convicted of stealing irons at Lancashire and
sentenced to 14 years transportation. Ticket of Leave issued for
Maitland district 10 January 1842.
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Convicted of stealing money
in Yorkshire in January 1835 and sentenced to transportation for 7
years. Assigned to Aspinall Brown & Co. Bathurst.
Convicted of stealing cidar in Bridgwater, Somerset.
Considered a bad character as had been transported before. Assigned
to Goat Island. Ticket of Leave issued for Invermein 1840
Publican convicted of
stealing an umbrella. Assigned House of Correction, Sydney. Married
Jane Christy 1842.
London. Gardener's labourer convicted of stealing mutton. Certificate of
Freedom issued in 1842.
Convicted of horse stealing. Assigned to Hamilton Hume, Yass. Ticket
of leave issued for the district of Yass in 1848 and cancelled in
1857 for being absent from his district. Ticket later restored.
25 year old
draper convicted of stealing money.
Shoemaker convicted of stealing shoes. Transported before.
Served six years in Bermuda. To be kept at labour on public roads.
Possibly died 1839
convicted of smuggling. Ticket of Leave for district of Wellington
1841. Applied to marry Elizabeth Hunt 1844. John Wicks Farm
servant aged 30 convicted of sheep stealing at the Surry Quarter
Sessions in February 1835. Assigned to Thomas T. Bloomfield,
Farm servant and butcher from Norfolk
convicted of stealing poultry. He had sandy whiskers, and was bald.
A Ticket of Leave was issued for the district of Port Phillip
42 year old father of five
from Whatley, Frome
convicted of receiving one hundred weight and half of hay belonging
to William Sheppart knowing it to be stolen. The hay had been stolen
by John Wilcox and Job Humphries. Isaac Wilcox suffered from scurvy
on the passage out. He was assigned to J. McDonald, Windsor on
arrival. He was issued with a ticket of leave in 1841 and applied to
marry Margaret Painter in 1843.
Fifteen year old carpenter's boy from
Plymouth convicted of stealing a watch and chain. No previous
convictions. Assigned to Thomas Icely, Bathurst.
Sentence of death recorded for robbing Rev.
Hawkins at Kington St. Michael, Wiltshire. Associate of Joseph
Find out more
about Frederick Williams at Bitton Families
from Buckinghamshire convicted of stealing bacon. Sentenced to 7
years transportation. Ticket of Leave issued for Windsor altered to
James Robert Williams
Carvers composition maker from London Convicted of robbing his
master and sentenced to 14 years transportation. Application to
marry Margaret Hunter in 1842 in Campbelltown.
Carvers composition maker born Gloucestershire.
Assigned C.T. Smith,
Illawarra. Particular marks: dark carroty whiskers, small raised
mole back left side of neck , scar back of left thumb, blue ring
middle finger left hand
Joseph Wilmott was born in Hanham, Gloucestershire, England.
One of eight children born to Sylvia Brown and Samuel Wilmott, he
was christened on 24th February, 1811 in Hanham. His brothers and
sisters were William, Ann, Sarah, Hannah and Robert. In 1835 Joseph
was found guilty of stealing one hundred pounds weight of bacon
valued at forty shillings, one hundred pounds weight of pork valued
at forty shillings and ten pounds weight of mutton valued at four
shillings from the house of the Rev. Thomas Hawkins in the Parish of
Kington Saint Michael in the County of Wiltshire. He was also
indicted for unlawfully and maliciously stabbing, cutting, and
wounding William Hatherill, to prevent his lawful apprehension.
Joseph was found guilty and sentence of death was passed upon him by
Mr. Justice Patteson. Frederick Williams his accomplice had a
sentence of death recorded against him for aiding and abetting
Joseph. Their trial took place at the Wiltshire Assizes on 7th
March, 1835. Joseph's sentence was commuted to transportation for
life. (Rev. Hawkins died in March 1836) -
assigned to work for the
Agricultural company in their coal
minesCaroline in 1833. Mary
was 26 years old and had a daughter Catherine born to her first
husband, convict Patrick Rice. When Patrick died in Newcastle
Hospital in 1839 Mary was left in Newcastle with an infant daughter
to raise. By 1845 when he married Mary Rice Joseph was no longer
working in the coal mines but worked as a sawyer. On the 9th June,
1856, Joseph made his Will leaving his property including horses,
cattle, land and house at Shepherd's Hill, Newcastle to his wife and
four sons. His four daughters were to inherit only if their mother
and all four brothers pre-deceased them. Joseph died aged 42 years,
in Newcastle N.S.W. on 7th July 1856 due to heart disease. He was
buried in the Church of England burial ground on 10th July, 1856.
Cheesemonger aged 24. Crime; Stealing hats Trial: Middlesex session
of Peace 18.5.1835 Sentence 7 years Previous convictions: none
Height: 5’5 ½” Complexion: Brown Hair: light brown Eyes: Chestnut
Particular marks: Front teeth irregular , scar inside left eye, scar
left side of upper lip. Assigned to
Agricultural company in Newcastle.
years old. Convicted of horse stealing and sentenced to
transportation for life. Assigned to J.M. Grey, Illawarra
Native place: Norfolk Trade
or calling: Brickmakers labourer Crime: Housebreaking Tried: Norfolk
assizes 28.3.1835 Sentence: 7 years Previous convictions: none
Height: 5/ 6” Complexion: dark sallow Hair; Brown Eyes: Grey
Particular marks: Eyebrows meeting, mole right side of neck, small
mole right cheek, 3 warts back of forefinger right hand.
Bushrangers Hicks, Pyzer & Wood.
21 year old farm
servant convicted of poaching. Ticket of leave issued in 1840 and
cancelled in 1841 for stealing lead.
Twenty years old. Convicted of stealing
harness in June 1835. No prior convictions. Assigned to Thomas Moore
at Liverpool in 1837
Farm servant and
shepherd from Suffolk sentenced to 14 years for housebreaking.
Ticket of leave issued for district of Bathurst.
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