The Mangles was built in
Bengal in 1803 and weighed 594 tons.
was the first of nine voyages of the Mangles
bringing convicts to Australia, the others being in
Prisoners came from districts throughout England
and Scotland - Stockport, Manchester, Derby,
Gloucestershire, Woolwich, Inverness,
Lancashire, Staffordshire, London, Bristol,
Birmingham, Nottingham, Dumfries, Edinburgh and
Glasgow. There were also seven prisoners who had
been Court-Martialled at Gibraltar, Barbados or
Prisoners were admitted to various Hulks to
await transportation. - William Webb who was
Court-martialled for desertion on 23rd December 1819
and transferred from Chatham Barracks to the Retribution hulk on 23rd February 1820.
transferred from Newgate prison to the Bellerophon hulk - John Butler Hewson, Isaac Tillerton and George Williamson had been
convicted of forgery with eleven other men at the
Old Bailey on 27th October 1819
Incidents of forgery were
high at this time. In England in the year 1820 a total of 165 people both
male and female were sentenced to 14 years transportation
for various offences. Of those people 154 had been
convicted of forgery or uttering forged bank notes. In
1821, 108 people were sentenced to transportation for 14
years for various offences and of those 86 were convicted
of forgery or uttering forged bank notes. (2).
In 1822 there were no convictions for those crimes...The
Proceedings of the Old Bailey Online page of Currency
has the following explanation of the high number of
forgeries at this time.....Between 1797 and 1821, the
period known as the ‘restriction’, new, primarily copper
coins and, most importantly, inexpensively produced £1 and
£2 notes were brought into circulation. The poor quality
of these notes led to a spate of forgeries, which in turn
led to a high number of prosecutions led by the Bank
itself, for both forgery and uttering forged notes. An
Act was passed in July 1820 for the further prevention of
forging and counterfeiting of Bank Notes, the penalty of
which was fourteen years transportation.
Matthew Anderson kept a
Medical Journal from 17 February to 15 August 1820........
On the 5th March 1820 -
The soldiers embarked on board this ship are a
detachment of the 48th Regiment and lately marched
from Chatham to this place. They are to act as a
Guard over Male convicts, about to be embarked for
conveyance to New South Wales.
of the 59th regiment., commanded the guard of 30
Privates of the 48th together with another 10 wives
and children of the regiment.
age 19, a Private of the 48th was the first
mentioned in Matthew Anderson's Medical Journal. He
was treated on the day the detachment was embarked
for catarrhal and fever. John Adlington of the 48th
was treated on 16th March while the ship lay at
Sheerness. On 24th March the surgeon inspected the
soldiers and found fourteen men were affected with
the itch which he attributed to a 'common woman who
came on board while the ship was still at Deptford'.
Richard Peel of the 48th received the surgeon's
attention for fever.
Many of the prisoners
were discharged from the various hulks on the 15th
March 1820, however they
weren't received on to the Mangles until 17th
On the 17th March 1820, 190 male
convicts embarked on board ship, and as the weather
was severe and cold and their slop clothing (of
which appeared to be intended for a warmer climate)
was ill calculated to defend their bodies from its
effects, many convicts suffered from catarrhal
Convicts Thomas Rae,
described by the surgeon as an elderly, infirm man
was treated on the day the prisoners embarked and
John King on 28th March at Sheerness. Richard
Bushell, James Miller and William Niblett were
also treated for illness or injury while still at
Sheerness. Several of the elderly and most infirm of
the convicts who were much debiliated by the great
length of the voyage were supplied from the Hospital
stores daily with soup, wine and tea in the
The Mangles was the next convict ship to
leave England for New South Wales after the
departure of the
Neptune in March 1820. The
departed Falmouth on 11th April 1820 and sailed
direct to Port Jackson, arriving on the 7th August
1820, a voyage of 118 days.
According to Governor
Mangles sailed in company
only parting from her eight days before reaching
Port Jackson. One hundred and eighty-nine prisoners
were disembarked in Sydney, one
boy being lost on the passage out.
There were about
fifteen boys on the Mangles. A record of their
conduct in gaol and the hulks can be found in the
Convict Ship Muster Rolls at Ancestry and reveal
some interesting assessments.....
George Horton from
Worcester was described as having a sly disposition
with propensities that render it necessary he should
be kept from associating with bad men;
Robinson was considered stubborn, worthless and
William Long was considered a quiet
boy, sent away in consequence of his parents being
transported to New South Wales. (1)
Passengers included Charles Throsby junior who was a
Charles Throsby of Throsby Park. Charles
Throsby junior later married Betsy Broughton (Betsy
Broughton narrowly escaped being massacred in New
Zealand when the the
attacked in 1809).
There was a muster held
on board where the prisoner's details were recorded.
Details such as when and where convicted, sentence,
native place, calling, age and physical description
were included but not their crimes or where each man
was assigned on arrival. They were
disembarked and inspected by Governor Macquarie
in the Jail yard on 15th August 1820 before being
distributed throughout the colony.
Mangles under Captain Coghill sailed for Calcutta in
September. Surgeon Matthew Anderson, Chief Officer
Mr. Atherden, Second Officer Mr. Scriff, Third
Officer Mr. Brooks.
Notes and Links:
1). Find out
Richard Snead who arrived on the
2). Matthew Anderson was
also employed as surgeon on the convict ships Surry
in 1822 and the
Castle Forbes .
The Mangles - Courtesy of State Library of
Hunter Valley convicts / passengers
arriving on the Mangles in 1820
Butler Hewson became a
Constable Gaoler at
and a well known identity in Newcastle for
Other ships bringing soldiers of the 48th regt., included
Earl St. Vincent
Convict John Gleeson was
assigned to the
burners gang after being transported to
Newcastle penal settlement for a colonial crime
8). On 1st December 1821 Governor Brisbane
was sworn in as Governor in Chief of the colony. To
commemorate this event Pardons were issued by
Governor Macquarie to some prisoners. William
Belcher who arrived on the Mangles was
sentenced to Death for killing his master received a
reprieve at this time and was sent to the newly
established penal settlement at
(1). New South Wales Government. Musters
and other papers relating to convict ships. Series
CGS 1155, Reels 2417-2428. State Records Authority
of New South Wales. Kingswood, New South Wales,
Accounts and Papers
Transcript of the Medical Journal of the Mangles -
(4). Ancestry.com. UK, Royal
Navy Medical Journals, 1817-1857 [database on-line].
Provo, UT, USA: Ancestry.com Operations, Inc., 2011.
Original data: Admiralty and predecessors: Office of the
Director General of the Medical Department of the Navy
and predecessors: Medical Journals (ADM 101, 804 bundles
and volumes). Records of Medical and Prisoner of War
Departments. Records of the Admiralty, Naval Forces,
Royal Marines, Coastguard, and related bodies. The
National Archives. Kew, Richmond, Surrey.
Bateson, Charles & Library of Australian History (1983).
The convict ships, 1787-1868 (Australian ed). Library of
Australian History, Sydney : pp.342-343, 383